Explain the steps of cellular respiration.
There are three steps involved in cellular respiration--glycolysis, Krebs/citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain. Glycolysis breaks the six carbon sugar down into two three carbon sugars called pyruvates. Glycolysis happens in the cytoplasm. The pyruvates are then transformed into AcetylCoA. The acetylCoA is then sent to the Krebs cycle. The Krebs Cycle and the Electron Transport Chain require oxygen to run. Both of these processes happen in the mitochondria. Inputs in the krebs cycle are acetylCoA, NAD+, FAD, and ADP+P. Outputs of the Krebs cycle are carbon dioxide, ATP, NADH, and FADH2. NADH and FADH2. Electron Transport happens in the membranes of the mitochondria. NADH drops its electrons into the first protein and FADH2 drops their electrons in between the first and second protein. As the electrons move down the chain of proteins it pumps protons through the proteins against the concentration gradient. When the electrons reach the end of the protein chain oxygen picks up the electrons as the final electron acceptor and binds with two protons to form water. ATP Synthase is the last element of the electron transport chain. It pulls protons into the complex and binds it to ADP+P and the proton to form ATP. In glycolysis you net 2 ATP, in the Krebs cycle you net 2 ATP, and in the electron transport chain you net roughly 30 ATP. Total in cellular respiration you make roughly 34 ATP.
Describe the organelles in the cell and their functions.
The nucleus houses the DNA for the cell. This is also the site for replication and transcription. Mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell. Cellular respiration happens here and bulk ATP production also happens here. The endoplasmic reticulum is the site of protein and lipid synthesis. Ribosomes, attached to the ER, is the site of protein synthesis. The golgi apparatus packages and ships lipids and proteins that are made in the ER. The cell membrane regulates what comes in and out of the cell. Lysosomes break down large materials in the cell to be recycled within the cell. A plant cell has organelles that animal cells do not. This includes the cell wall, chloroplast and vacuoles. The cell wall maintains the shape of the cell. Chloroplasts are the site of photosynthesis. Vacuoles store food, water and in some plants poison. All organelles are housed in cytoplasm which is the liquid of the cell.
What are the similarities and differences in the bovine and porcine digestive systems?
Bovine animals are ruminants. Their digestive system has a four part stomach, a small intestine and a large intestine. The stomach of a bovine is composed of the reticulum, rumen, abomasum, and omasum. The abomasum is the true stomach. The rumen houses microbes that are able to break down forages that the cattle eats into usable carbohydrates and proteins. The main differences between the porcine and bovine is the fact that bovine animals can break down forages such as hay into usable forms while plant material in a porcine diet is just fiber. Porcine animals have a stomach, small intestine and a large intestine. The stomach works much like a humans would. The small intestine and large intestine work the same in both species.