What is the purpose of a thesis statement?
A good thesis statement serves to introduce the topic of the paper. It is part of the introductory paragraph, which provides a concise summary of the rest of the paper, as well as the writer's position (if writing a persuasive essay).
Name and define three different study strategies that address memory and retention.
Mnemonics help people to remember information by arranging it in memorable ways. Mnemonics can include, for example, rhymes, forming a word or phrase using the first letter of each word to be memorized, and making connections between words that sound similar. Visual strategies, such as graphic organizers, the method of loci, pegwords, and chunking help with memorization by aiding the learning with visualizing information in memorable ways and forming associations between words or between a word and a visual reminder. Repetition and overlearning encourage the learner to continue practice in order to increase fluency. Elaboration, or forming connections between the new information and other meaningful information, helps the learner to fit new information into their existing knowledge.
Describe the four types of reinforcement/punishment as defined by BF Skinner.
From the behavioral perspective, operant conditioning occurs via reinforcement and punishment. Reinforcement is a consequence following a particular behavior that increases the likelihood of that behavior occurring again. Punishment, on the other hand, decreases the likelihood of the behavior recurring. In addition, each of these can be either positive or negative. When something (a stimulus) is presented or provided as a consequence, then it is known as positive reinforcement or positive punishment (depending upon whether it increases or decreases future occurrences of the behavior). A reward or prize is an example of positive reinforcement, whereas a spanking is an example of positive punishment; in each of these cases, the consequence was presented following the behavior. On the other hand, when something is withdrawn (taken away) following the behavior, it is known as negative reinforcement or negative punishment. Negative reinforcement, for example, could be allowing an employee to leave work early, perhaps at lunchtime, after finishing their work quickly. To reinforce (increase) the productive work behavior, the afternoon workload was removed and the employee went home early. Negative punishment similarly involves removing something, although in this case it is undesirable. For example, when a child misbehaves and loses access to his toys for the afternoon, this is negative punishment because the toys were taken away.