How do I start my research paper?
The very first place to start is to find a topic that interests you. Research requires a lot of work, so you want to find something that is both broad enough that you can find enough support, but narrow enough that you won't be overwhelmed by information or re-writing already well-trodden ground.
How does the theme of epistemology tie into Shakespeare's "Hamlet"?
Epistemology questions what we understand to be "true", and why we perceive it to be true. Throughout the entirety of the play we must question knowledge and reality - can Hamlet's ghost be trusted? Is it even real? Is Gertrude innocent or merely pretending to be innocent? Is young Hamlet mad or merely pretending to be mad? Epistemology drives the plot forward and contributes to the wide variety of interpretations of characters.
Explain in your own words what Marshal McLuhan's theory "the medium is the message" means. How does it relate to media consumption?
McLuhan posits that, rather than the message being more or less important than the means by which it is transmitted, the medium is itself the important part of communication. How we consume information is thus "the message". By examining the medium - texting, television ads, SnapChat, etc. - we can learn something about both the producers of the product and the recipients.