Discuss the use of the Aristotelian appeals of ethos, logos, pathos in writing and how writers can use these rhetorical devices to either write more or less persuasive arguments and theses.
Logos is the appeal to a reader, character or audience's logic or sensibility. For example, if a character in a novel tries to reason with another character by citing facts or statistics, the character may be appealing to logos. Or, if a writer uses these same tools to make an argument, he/she may be appealing to the audience's logos. Ethos is the rhetorical tool in which the author or character attempts to utilize his/her trustworthiness and credibility to make a more successful argument. This could take the form of an author trying to take on a more conversational tone or by directly reaching out to the audience by using "we" or "you." Pathos is associated with a successful emotional appeal. An example could be an author bringing up a tragic event in an argument for a way to prevent that tragic event, or a character admitting their wrongdoing and explaining their attempt for repentance.
What were some of the economic reasons for the start of the U.S. Civil War?
The North and South had two competing industries – industrial north vs. agrarian south, which led to another conflict about the use of labor in these two different industries: free labor vs. slave labor. In addition, there had been a tariff battle for almost a century. The south wants low and the north wants high because they are competing with foreign manufacturers and the south needed low ones because they existed on King Cotton. The belief in nullification of Congressional laws and the Nullification Crisis also played a major role. This goes back to Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions regarding Alien and Sedition Acts. Finally, the recession of 1857 causes an even bigger divide between the two regions.
Identify a literary or rhetorical technical device in a novel, play, or poem of your choice and develop an essay response to how that device was used to further develop the work as a whole.
In the play, "A Streetcar Named Desire" by Tennessee Williams, the motif of light was used to represent the truth. For example, stage directions state of protagonist, Blanche, “Her delicate beauty must avoid a strong light. There is something about her uncertain manner, as well as her white clothes, that suggests a moth,” (Williams, 15). The comparison of Blanche to a moth indicates that she is attracted to light, but her uncertain manner displays that she needs to avoid light. When discussing the loss of Belle Reve, Stanley says to his wife, Stella, “Let me enlighten you on a point or two,” (Williams, 34). Stanley wants to enlighten, or shed light on, while Blanche needs to stay away from light, denoting her need to avoid Stanley. Similarly, Stanley acted in an overly masculine way as an attempt to hide the truth. Stella laughingly says of him, “He smashed all the light bulbs with the heel of my slipper!” (Williams, 64). Light was a symbol of truth of sexuality, and the masculine action of smashing the lightbulb suggests that Stanley was trying to hide his true sexuality with violent behavior as a method of appearing masculine. Cornelius’ dependency on women is also displayed by Stanley’s need for Stella. After he violently beats Stella, he sobbingly tries to retrieve her from Eunice’s. Crying, he calls to Stella, "Stella! My baby doll’s left me!” (Williams, 59). As he calls to her, stage directions state, “The Negro entertainers in the bar around the corner play “Paper Doll” slow and blue,” (Williams, 59). The pathetic fallacy of the song paper doll exhibit the graveness of the situation and the remorse Stanley feels, and the diction of the song title along with Stanley’s calling Stella a doll display his dependency on Stella and his sexual vulnerability even though he physically abused her.