Enantiomers are molecules that are mirror images of each other. They also have the same physical properties, which can make separation techniques useless. If you want to separate enantiomers, what must be done prior to separation? Also, name a common technique used to separate molecules and give a brief description of its mechanism.
To separate enantiomers, one must react one of the enantiomers with a chiral molecule, thereby converting it into a diastereomer. This will ensure that the two molecules you have will have physical properties that are different enough to be able to be separated by conventional separation techniques. One of the techniques that can be used for separation is simple distillation, which will separate molecules based on their boiling points.
Bob has owned his iron pickup truck for years since he first received his license during his high school years. While cleaning his car, he starts to notice the formation of rust on the hood of his truck. Bob plans to have the rust removed soon, but is interested as to where the rust originated. Is the rusting a chemical change and what chemical reaction is responsible for the rust? Also briefly describe what happens in the reaction.
The formation of rust is a chemical change, since the rusting is caused by an oxidation reaction. The iron of the car reacts with the oxygen and moisture from the surrounding environment. When that oxygen reacts with the iron, it forms an iron oxide compound that rust is primarily composed of.
A patient complains to his physician that he is experiencing frequent hunger and thirst and always need to urinate more often than usual. The physician suspects diabetes and orders a blood test. The test reveals an abnormally high blood glucose amount. This abnormality can be explained by a deficiency in what hormone and where does this hormone come from? Also distinguish between type I and type II diabetes.
A high blood glucose amount suggests the inability of the body to take up glucose for metabolism as a result of a deficiency of the peptide hormone insulin, synthesized in the pancreas. In type I diabetes, the insulin fails to be made by the pancreas, while in type II diabetes, the insulin is made but does respond properly to the insulin receptors.