Tutor profile: Jade C.
Excerpt of your introduction section of your thesis
The witch figure is affected by and influenced by what society believes is acceptable behavior for women. This project has analyzed the witch trope in horror films and newspapers chronologically and categorized said depictions into three categories: witches as victims, witches that symbolize a woman’s agency, and witches as witch hunters saw them. By examining and distinguishing these three subcategories, the witch archetype becomes more complicated. It offers a more extensive analysis of the archetype and the many ways into American popular culture. This includes ideas regarding who can and cannot express emotions like anger. The witch archetypes and their varying types inspired some feminists to use the witch figure as a symbol of strength. Over time the witch archetypes shown depict what is to come in the 1970s women’s liberation movement and its backlash. The representation of witches matters because it affects how people see women’s role in society. Feminists connected to witch archetypes because women were consistently taught self-hatred through shame and trauma by society. The second-wave feminist generation was bombarded with contradictory messages in the media about their body and personality. The witch figure took the criticism and defied expectations. Such an act inspired feminists in the 1960s to create Women’s International Terrorist Conspiracy from Hell (W.I.T.C.H) who’s namesake pays tribute to the archetype. This continues to the present with the revival of W.I.T.C.H during the 2016 election. This chapter will review numerous newspapers in 1960s America that focus on witch archetypes that can further help scholarship understand the popular culture and broader culture outside of the cinema. Priority was placed on articles printed in several newspapers throughout the country because this could indicate some popular sentiments. Newspaper articles selected were required to mention “witch(es) explicitly.” The horror films chosen for this chapter include horror films filmed outside of the US only if the film was recut and edited for an American audience via a US production company to keep the study focused on American popular culture and audiences. While there are horror films referred to as “B movies” that have witch archetypes in this period but they are not included in this study because most horror B movies were played in “grime houses” that had age restrictions based on their pornographic content and were not as encompassing of mass media because it was made for a narrow audience, typically the films were also given a different title. While other horror films in the US that were produced internationally and shown in the US. This project will be looking at who is being considered a witch and how they are portrayed in chronological order to see change over time as the women’s liberation movement progresses. The chapter will break down the decade chronologically through a grouping system of three defining periods: 1960-1964, 1965-1968, and 1969. First, the years of 1960 to 1964 are before the release and popularization of the show Bewitched. The films tend to see witches only as the villains envisioned by witch hunters. The second period of 1965 to 1968 is marked by the release of Bewitched and the lack of witch archetypes in horror films in part. This drop may be in part because Bewitched had high ratings during its run. The third section focuses on 1969, which is placed into a separate period because the popularity of Bewitched combined with the growing women’s liberation movement led to the creation of the witch as a symbol of women with the agency that some feminists adopted. The end of the 1960s ushered an end to the hippie movement and saw the return of the evil witch coven in the multi-layered film Rosemary’s Baby. Because of the film’s presence, it demands a separate section.
Subject: World History
What is the importance of Atlantic History by Bernard Bailyn?
Atlantic History by Bernard Bailyn emphasizes that history is what is and who are studying it. Chapter one details Atlantic history’s meaning from first contact Europeans made with the Western Hemisphere to the Revolutionary era is a contentious topic. Atlantic history is not merely a geographic subject. After WWI, the history of the trans- Atlantic began to pick up again after stagnation. Atlantic history was born through practical political arguments in the Atlantic region. It was part of the philosophy of realpolitik. After WWII, the Atlantic community was forming together (i.e., NATO), and this is seen as a historical shift. This community was full of key influential figures in foreign relations. The most outspoken were two Catholic historians who categorized the group as an anti-communist and common inherence of Judeo- Christian traditions. Those in public commentary and historical scholarship formed a bond that became extremely problematic. The concept of “Atlantic Culture" argued that all nation-states in the Atlantic ought to include the histories of other Atlantic countries as they are essential to understanding their home country. Atlantic history tended to construct accounts that argued that North America plays a crucial role in European history. There was also a division if there were triangular areas of culture in the Atlantic that came together. Or if there was one Atlantic Culture in the past and it split apart over time. Some scholars argued that Atlantic history was purely a tactic to fight the Soviets and would eventually disappear after said conflict. Some were uncomfortable with moving the focus away from the field of their study. This shows the reality of history prevails as the creation of its environment and general development. Another aspect of Atlantic history is the ocean. The slave trade and the forced migration helped develop the intertwined cultures. The Atlantic history that included migration helped bind - Europe to the US. Intellectual history was also an avenue of studying "Atlantic tradition." D. W. Meining, a geographer, highlighted the blurring of Western Civilization. Atlantic history's point is to look at the phases we have gone through to get to the present. The first phase of Atlantic history is of the creation and tensions between colonizers and indigenous peoples. In what Bailyn calls the Barbaric era, history was used as part of the justification of violence and revenge. New borderlands were at first unstable, fluid, and unpredictable. Bailyn argues that everyone, including Europeans, acted savagely. Some struggled with converting indigenous people; however, there was hope because their lifestyle was "free from greed." Following the mass barbarity, there was a push to create an ideal utopia. It was fueled through the symbolism of a second coming in Biblical texts. Over time the ocean became like a roadway rather than a barrier.
Subject: US History
What is the current state of the field of women's liberation movement in the US?
The scholarship of the Women's Liberation Movement in America developed as the movement faded in the public eye in the 1980s. In this new field, historians debated how to establish the foundations and key terms of the field. Scholars debated how to define "Radical," "Moderate," and " Liberal" feminism. These definitions not only affect the scholarship on the women’s rights movement of the mid-twentieth century but also outlines and defines future feminist movements. Revisions and debating definitions have occurred in part because of the growth in primary sources over the decades and broader adoption of intersectional research. The founding scholars of the movement have promoted and encouraged further studies in women’s history; however, these same scholars have some flaws. The most substantial gaps tend to emphasize the contentious nature of feminism in American popular culture. The current state of the field of the American Women’s Liberation Movement has developed a crucial bottom-up history of the movement; however, I will highlight some subsections that could be more developed and centralized in the future scholarship. As the field currently stands, there is a lack of analyzing the influence of historical actors in the LGBTQ+, Latinx, Black, Asian, Indigenous, and non-Judeo-Christian communities on the movement and there is a lack of historical research of feminist spiritualist religions particularly “goddess religions.”
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