Tutor profile: Abigal G.
Subject: Religious Studies
Why is there suffering in the world if God exists?
Here is the age-old dilemma: If God is all-good, as the Bible says, then He would want to get rid of evil. If He is all-powerful, then He could do it. But even a casual look at the evening news, to say nothing of the Virginia Tech tragedy, informs us that He has not defeated evil. Hence, the argument goes, there cannot be an all-good and all-powerful God. While this logic sounds tight and painful, it is not faultless. Because God has not yet defeated all evil does not mean that He never will defeat it. Indeed, both good logic and the Bible declare that He will yet do away with evil. How so? First, if God is all-powerful then He can do it, and if He is all-loving, then He wants to do it. And whatever He can and wants to do, He will do (Psalm 135:6). His very nature as an omnipotent and omni-benevolent being demands that evil will be vanquished. Second, God already has done something about evil. He sent His only Son into the world to die for the world and to defeat evil. Evil was defeated officially at Christ’s first coming through His death and resurrection (Colossians 2:14, Hebrews 2:14, Ephesians 4:7-12). His victory over sin and the grave ensured Satan’s eventual defeat. The same Bible that accurately predicted Christ’s first coming through nearly 100 fulfilled prophecies promises that Christ will come again and will completely defeat evil. Meanwhile, What Do We Do? Jesus answered this in one word—repent. In Luke 13, Jesus hears the story of the Galileans “whose blood Pilate had mixed with their sacrifices.” He asks if this happened to them because they were worse sinners than those who had not suffered such a tragic death. His answer was instructive: “I tell you, no; but unless you repent you will all likewise perish” (Luke 13:3, NKJV). In short, in a free and fallen world, tragedies happen to people who are no more sinners than those to whom such events do not happen. We are all sinners and we all need to repent and “believe in the Lord Jesus Christ and be saved” (Cf. Acts 16:31). Life is brief. You can never be sure how long it will last. We all should be prepared to meet our God at any moment.
How can we get our working memory to work for us?
Working memory is that part of your memory system that allows you to keep information actively in “consciousness,” either because you are learning something for the first time, or are trying to recall something you learned in the past. Theoretically, you could keep information in working memory indefinitely if you thought about it and nothing else, but obviously this would not be a very feasible task. The trick is for you to keep information for as long as you need it or be able to haul it into working memory when you need it. Psychology has three simple tricks to help your working memory: 1. Chunking- by organizing large amounts of information into a smaller number of units (the “magical number of 7 plus or minus 2”), you will be able to store the information much more efficiently but then you have to use step #2; 2. Encoding so you can retrieve- you have to be able to pull up the organizational framework you created at the time of encoding if you’re going to be able to use it later, so you need to follow the adage “If you don’t encode, you can’t retrieve,”; 3. Using “deep” processing- According to levels of processing theory, the more meaning you put into what you’re trying to remember, the better your chances of remembering it. Even putting a list of words you need to remember into a sentence, rather than just memorizing them through rote, will give you that deeper processing edge. At the same time, though, we know from eyewitness memory research, people’s memory is highly unreliable. We are likely to forget small details, or change the small details of experiences to fit with what we had expected to have happen. The classic eyewitness memory research asked participants to estimate the speed of two cars involved in an accident. If they were asked how fast the cars were going when they “smashed” into each other, participants estimated the speed as higher than if asked how fast they were going when they “contacted” each other. Similarly, people can be misled into thinking that an item was on a word list when it in fact was not. If you read a list of words that all relate to the category “sweet” (but don’t actually include “sweet”), people will think that the word “sweet” was on the list. Relying on your own, or other people’s, eyewitness memory is a risky proposition. If you need to remember something that’s happening in front of you, either write it down or snap a picture with your smartphone!
Describe the spine, its curvatures and vertebral column movement.
The spine extends from the skull to the apex of the coccyx and forms the skeleton of the neck, and back and the main part of the axial skeleton. It consists of 33 vertebrae arranged in five regions: 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 4 coccygeal. (One professor suggests thinking of times of the day that you eat, i.e. 7am, 12pm, and 5pm.) Motion only occurs among 24 vertebrae: 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, and 5 lumbar. The sacral and coccygeal vertebrae are usually fused. (Latin/Greek, coccyx = cuckoo's beak. Latin, os sacrum = holy bone) Possible movements of the spinal column: Flexion (touching your toes) Extension (bending backwards) Lateral bending Rotation (either of head and neck only, or of the entire torso) Four curvatures of the spine are apparent in adults: Cervical: secondary curvature - concave posteriorly Thoracic: primary curvature - concave anteriorly Lumbar: secondary curvature - concave posteriorly Sacral: primary curvature - concave anteriorly
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