Tutor profile: Surangma S.
Subject: Health and Medicine
Albuterol may cause all except : a. Tremors b. Hypokalemia c. Tachycardia d. Hypoglycemia
The correct answer is the option given as d. Hypoglycemia Albuterol or salbutamol is a drug used for bronchial asthma. It is a highly selective beta-2 agonist drug which means it has minimum cardiac side effects because the heart has beta-1 receptors. Muscle tremors are the most common side effect of Albuterol which is a dose-related side effect (increases with the increase in dose). The other main side effects include tachycardia (fast heart rate), restlessness, throat irritation, hypokalemia (low serum potassium), and hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). Albuterol causes muscle tremors due to the stimulation of beta-2 receptors on the skeletal muscles and causes hypokalemia due to the shift of the potassium from extracellular to intracellular spaces. This shift is caused by insulin which is released through the stimulation of beta cells on the pancreas. It causes hyperglycemia due to increased glycogenolysis (glycogen breakdown) and gluconeogenesis (formation of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources). This hyperglycemia, in turn, contributes to insulin release and hypokalemia. Hence, Albuterol causes hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), and not hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).
Which gland secretes ADH or Antidiuretic hormone? What is the function of this hormone? Name the condition caused by its deficiency.
Antidiuretic hormone, also known as vasopressin, is secreted by the posterior pituitary gland. It is synthesized by the hypothalamus and then transported to the posterior pituitary which stores and releases it. The function of the antidiuretic hormone can be understood through its name- the word 'diuresis' means increased urine production, therefore the function of the antidiuretic hormone is to reduce the loss of water through urine. It does so by increasing the reabsorption of water by the distal tubules of the kidneys. ADH also causes constriction of the blood vessels. Reabsorption of water by kidneys increases the blood volume whereas, constriction of blood vessels increases the systemic vascular resistance. Both these actions result in increased blood pressure. The deficiency of ADH reduces the ability of the kidneys to conserve water which leads to water loss and dehydration. This condition is known as "Diabetes Insipidus"
The rotator cuff is formed by all except: a. Supraspinatus b. Teres Major c. Infraspinatus d. Subscapularis
The correct answer is the option given as b. Teres Major. The rotator cuff is also known as the "musculotendinous cuff of the shoulder". It is a fibrous sheath formed by the tendons of four muscles, namely, Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres minor, and Subscapularis. These muscles originate from the scapula (shoulder blade) and are inserted into the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus bone. The tendons of these muscles flatten and blend with the capsule of the shoulder joint before their insertion into the humerus. Therefore, the rotator cuff is a stabilizer of the shoulder joint. The cuff is deficient inferiorly which may contribute to the shoulder dislocation in the downward direction. The muscles of the rotator cuff can be easily remembered with the help of the mnemonic: SITS (S- Supraspinatus, I- Infraspinatus, T- Teres Minor, and S- Subscapularis). But remember, it's Teres minor which forms the rotator cuff, and not Teres major! Teres major originates from the scapula and inserts into the bicipital groove of the humerus without blending with the capsule of the shoulder joint, unlike the rotator cuff muscles.
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