When do I use the conditional tense, and how is it formed?
The conditional tense can be simply described as the equivalent of using the word "would" in English. More appropriately, it is used when you are discussing hypothetical situations, and is often paired with the imperfect subjunctive (If I were a rich man, I would not work = Si yo fuera rico, yo no trabajaria). It is one of the easiest tenses to form. Except for a few outliers (most importantly hacer, decir, haber, saber, and querer), simply add the er/ir imperfect tense endings (ia, ias, ia, iamos, iais, ian) to the end of the infinitive. For example, hablar would be conjugated: yo hablaria, tu hablarias, Ud. hablaria, nosotros hablariamos, vosotros hablariais, ellos hablarian.
What is the difference between the preterite and imperfect tenses in Portuguese?
While both of these tenses denote action in the past, the preterite and imperfect each represent different types of actions in the past. As a general rule of thumb, the preterite tense will refer to singular actions in the past, while the imperfect refers to actions that where either repeated multiple times or were on-going. For example, if you were to say, "I went to Europe once", you would use the preterite (Eu fui para Europa uma vez). However, if you were to say, "I always used to go to Europe when I was younger", you would use the imperfect (Eu sempre ia para Europa quando eu era mais jovem).
Based on economic theory, how would you describe the relationship between an economy's inflation rate and its unemployment rate?
With few exceptions in modern economic history, the inflation rate and unemployment are negatively correlated, especially over the medium-to-long term. Typically, as the unemployment rate drops, the smaller pool of unemployed workers forces wages to rise, which in turn causes inflation. The opposite is true when unemployment rates rise. This negative correlation is illustrated by the Phillips Curve, which plotted these 2 variables against each other over time.