Tutor profile: Munish C.
What is a thermodynamic state function? How is it different from other path-dependent functions?
A thermodynamic state function is the parameters that define the system's initial and the final state in which a process has occurred. State functions don't care how the system has reached from the initial state to the final state or by what processes. Some examples of the thermodynamic state functions are enthalpy, free energy, etc. Work is not a state function but a path-dependent function as its value will change as the system tries different ways to go from the initial to the final state.
Why does a living cell need to convert genetic information of DNA to RNA and then use it for making protein in the central dogma? Why can't a cell evolve to straightway use DNA to make protein and skip generating RNA?
A living cell stores the genetic information in the form of DNA which is first made to RNA and then protein as per the central dogma of molecular biology processes. Errors generated in the DNA can bring more severe effects to the cell as this information is passed onto from one generation to another. Thus, a living cell evolved to utilize the genetic information of DNA to first make copies of it in the form of RNA transcripts in a regulated fashion (abundance or in less amount) which is used to make then protein in further downstream processes. DNA is like the constitution book of the cell with all the laws and rules written to run the cell's daily activities and the information of the DNA constitution is retrieved/obtained by making RNA.
What are the applications of Laplace transform of a function f(t) with the independent variable t?
Laplace Transformation of some functions f(t) that are dependent upon the variable time t to another variable in the frequency domain s helps in solving a complex set of linear and ordinary differential equations. These differential equations are generated in electronic circuits design, in different chemical kinetics steps seen in system biology-biophysical chemistry and nuclear physics, and also in digital and analog signal processing.
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