Tutor profile: Caroline R.
Rewrite these sentences in active voice. 1. Oreos are a type of cookie Anthony loves. 2. The results were submitted by the researchers for analysis. 3. Over 300 votes were cast by the citizens for a new town sign.
1. Anthony loves oreo cookies. 2. The researchers submitted the results for analysis. 3. The citizens cast 300 votes for a new town sign.
What are Tinbergen's perspectives of animal behavior? Use baboon vocalizations to describe the perspectives.
Tinbergen’s first perspective is identifying the mechanism that produces the behavior. Vocalizations are neural responses to visual stimuli and are focused in Bocca’s area in the left side of the brain. Visual stimuli that would evoke an alarm call would be a crocodile on the bank of the river. The second perspective is identifying how the behavior develops in a species. Alarm calling is genetic and naturally selected for in populations. Louder alarm callers are more successful in avoiding predation and survive to reproduce. This means loud calls will be selected for in future generations through common decent. The behavior is also influenced by environmental factors based on their ecological niche. Baboons living on reserve may have alarm calls for leopards and crocodiles. Baboons living in urban regions may have alarm calls about hawks, dogs, snakes, and people. The behavior is reinforced through learning specific calls from individuals in a group. The third perspective is the survival value of a behavior. Alarm calling is advantageous because it is altruistic of kin and increases inclusive fitness. The alarm alerts the group of a threat and provides them time to seek shelter. This also informs the threat they have been sighted. The fourth perspective is identifying the origin of the behavior. One might analyze different populations of alarm calling species like vervets, chimps, and macaques and categorize their behaviors. This will show how the behavior is distributed across populations, the phylogenetic relationship, and how it evolved.
What is an argument for free speech and communication supported by three perspectives?
The philosophical perspective is that speech is important for search for truth. The political perspective is that speech is necessary in democratic societies. The individual perspective is that speech is essential to personal fulfillment.
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