Conjugez les verbes suivants selon le temps: Être, Avoir. (Conjugate the following verbs with the apporpriate tense: Être, Avoir.)
Present: Être—Je suis, tu es, il/elle/on est, nous sommes, vous etes, ils/elles sont. Avoir—J'ai, tu as, il/elle/on a, nous avons, vous avez, ils/elles ont. Passé Composé: Être—J'ai été, tu as été, il/elle/on a été, nous avons été, vous avez été, ils/elles ont été Avoir—J'ai eu, tu as eu, il/elle/on a eu, nous avons eu, vous avez eu, ils/elles ont eu Futur: Être—Je serai, tu seras, il/elle/on sera, nous serons, vous serez, ils/elles seront Avoir—J'aurai, tu auras, il/elle/on aura, nous aurons, vous aurez, ils/elles auront Imparfait: Être—J'étais, tu étais, il/elle/on était, nous étions, vous étiez, ils/elles étaient Avoir—Javais, tu avais, il/elle/on avait, nous avions, vous aviez, ils/elles avaient Conditionnel: Être—Je serais, tu serais, il/elle/on serait, nous serions, vous seriez, ils/elles seraient Avoir—J'aurais, tu aurais, il/elle/on aurait, nous aurions, vous auriez, ils/elles auraient
How has the separation of powers through both federalism and checks and balances have prevented a concentration of power in the national government?
The separation of powers was an ingenious idea of the Framers of our Constitution. The powers are split among three separate, yet equal branches of government on the national level: the legislative branch (Congress), the executive branch (the White House) and the judicial branch (the Supreme Court). Infamously, President Nixon would not submit tapes during the Watergate Scandal. The Supreme Court ruled in US v. Nixon that his executive privilege did not include withholding evidence. Another example is when the Supreme Court's decision was overturned by the Congress and states' passing of the 16th Amendment, which permits the federal government to tax income. Furthermore, the powers that the government is supposed to take on are split between the state-level and the national-level, which is known as federalism. The powers of the state governments and of the Congress are outlined in Article I, Sections 8, 9 and 10. The 10th Amendment is the most popularly cited amendment dealing with the separation of powers. It reserves the powers that were not enumerated in the Constitution for Congress to the states governments and the people. An example of this is legalizing marijuana; states have been individually legalizing the medical and recreational use of pot, even though the federal government has made it illegal. The Framers knew from experience that "power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely" and that the government needed to be of, by and for the people. Therefore, the roles that the governments and their branches were thoughtfully split to prevent tyrannical rule.
How was the legal status of African-American affected by the Reconstruction Amendments?
The Reconstruction Amendments—the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments—were codified in the Constitution throughout the decade following the Civil War. The 13th Amendment, which expanded President Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, made slavery illegal; the 14th Amendment naturalized all former slaves by granting them citizenship and equal protection under the law, which overturned the Supreme Court's decision in the Dred Scott case that stated no black person can ever become a citizen, free or enslaved; and the 15th Amendment made it illegal for people to be denied the franchise (the right to vote) on the account of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude." Unfortunately, the last amendment had many loopholes, leading to many states to pass laws which were to be known as the Jim Crow Laws. These laws prohibited many rights of African-Americans, but most significantly they were used to prevent blacks from voting.