Tutor profile: Makayla W.
What is social stratification, and how might it impact the outcome of an individual's life?
A society is divided up into different groups based on economic class and other social factors. Group membership can make it more or less likely that a person is accepted into certain environments, and may determine if a person has the economic or social resources to participate in certain parts of society. For example, the United States can be thought of as divided into the working, middle, and upper classes, as well as gender and race groups. While one member of society may be born with the social and material means to excel in school and connect with prestigious members of society to gain meaningful employment, having made more likely by belonging to all or some of the same social groups, another may be born without the social and material means to excel in school, and their social connections may only be able to help them with horizontal social mobility, that is, perhaps a change in occupation but maintaining the same social status and economic means.
Subject: International Studies
Each country has access to a unique set of natural resources, such as water, arable farmland, and metals in virtue of its geography. Give an example of how access to natural resources have provoked conflict between at least two modern countries, and explain what can be done to help resolve the conflict.
One example of potential conflict between modern states concerns the Nile River. The river flows south to north. One branch, the Blue Nile, begins in Ethiopia and runs through Sudan and Egypt. Ethiopia began to construct the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam in 2011. Ethiopia has started to fill the dam without a new agreement on water allocation established with Sudan and Egypt. The Blue Nile provides a vast majority of the Nile's water downstream, and so, the affected countries are concerned about continuing to sustain their populations. On the other hand, Ethiopia expects to greatly benefit from hydroelectric power and expects to improve many lives in the region. There are older agreements on water allocation, but it is clear that the countries do not have a consensus about them and so need to reaffirm an agreement on what is to be done to sustain their populations, and involve other states in the Nile River basin as well. They must consider what is to be done in the case of climate emergencies, and create a mechanism to resolve future conflict with an international body.
Subject: World History
Describe a major turning point in world history and why you believe it is influential.
Though there are many possible turning points in world history, one example is the decision of the Ming dynasty to stop their Treasure Fleet expeditions by the year 1525. At the time, Ming China was technologically advanced and powerful compared to the rest of the world. The government's decision to stop voyages was part of a wider agreement to keep to themselves. They could preserve their traditional culture in that way, but it was at the expense of gaining new technologies from the rest of the world and maintaining influence abroad. If China had continued to advance technologically and militarily by exploring other lands and asserting influence, the following centuries could have turned out differently for rising European powers.