Tutor profile: Shaindi S.
What are the three main "modes of persuasion" and what are they used for?
The modes of persuasion are useful strategies that you can put in your rhetorical toolbox. When used together, they can be very helpful for writing a convincing essay. "Logos," or a logical appeal, is when you reference facts to make your reader think logically. "Ethos," or an ethical appeal, is when you cite credible sources or any way of getting your reader to trust your knowledge of the topic. Lastly, "pathos" is an emotional appeal, where you are trying to make your reader feel something. Pathos can be very persuasive, especially with emotions like sadness or fear, but be careful not to seem too manipulative with those emotions, because it might backfire! The goal is to persuade your reader, and your reader will be much more persuadable if you seem fair and honest.
Sometimes in everyday conversation, we use the phrase "missed the mark" as a way of saying someone failed or fell short of their goal. What is the literary origin of this phrase?
This can be traced back to Greek mythology. In Ancient Greece, archery was a popular sport that indicated if a man had what it takes to be a warrior. So, when asked to demonstrate his skills, an archer who shot his arrow and did not hit the target was considered unfit; he "missed the mark". In Ancient Greek literature, it's a common theme to test the protagonist's heroism. The "hero" character often has a tragic flaw--or "hamartia," in Greek-- that causes him to miss his target, whatever the target might be. For example, the protagonist in Homer's famous epic The Odyssey, Odysseus, returns after a long journey home and must prove who he is by shooting an arrow where "no man has ever hit before." As a closing symbol of his heroism, he hits the target and successfully avoids the hero's tragic flaw of "missing the mark".
One of the four subfields of Anthropology is Sociocultural. What is culture?
Well, it depends who you ask! The answer has shifted over time. The most well-known definition of culture comes from anthropologist E.B. Tylor in 1871: "That complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." In plain English this translates to: pretty much everything we do and think about. But Tylor's is a very broad definition. The more apt and concise version would be that culture is a society's collection of values and perceptions that we use to make sense of the world around us. Culture is learned (you aren't born with it) and is shared through social interactions, which influences and is reflected in our behavior (source: William Haviland, 2016).
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