what is the role of Newtonion or classical physics for developing the special theory of relativity ?
The classical or Newtonion mechanics is entirely based on Newton’s law of motion and gravitation. His laws of motion were the sheet anchor on which the whole structure of mechanics was based. By using these laws, the motion of planets, exact time of sunset and sunrise as also the exact time of solar or lunar eclipse etc could be predicted. However, early in the 20th century, on the basis of experiment evidences, it was revealed that the Newton’s laws of motion did not give correct results when applied to the objects moving with high speed comparable to the speed of light. This discrepancy of results made scientists think of seriously about the validity of our implicit assumptions on the constancy of mass, length and time. In 1905, Einstein surprised the world of science by the publication of his ‘special theory of relativity’. The basic idea of this theory that space, time, mass, velocity, momentum etc. are relative in contrast to the Newton’s classical mechanics. Hence, everything in the universe is relative, nothing is absolute. This theory describes the motion of particles moving with the velocities close to the speed of light. The special theory of relativity is the generalization of Newtonion mechanics when the speed of particle is very low comparable to the speed of light. Since at high speed, the Newtonion mechanics fails, hence we say Newtonion mechanics is a special case of relativistic mechanics for particles moving at low speed comparative to velocity of light.
What is the major role of electricity and magnetism in explaining the behavior of electromagnetic waves?
In the early days of 19th century, James Clerk Maxwell found that all the basic principles of electromagnetism can be formulated in terms of four fundamental equations, now called maxwell’s equations. These equations have been obtained form four basic laws of electricity and magnetism. These laws are : Gauss’s law for electric field, Gauss’s law for magnetic field, Ampere’s circuital law and Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. These relations were collected by Maxwell and unified them by introducing the concept of displacement current. These equations predict the existence of electromagnetic waves and that such waves are radiated by accelerating charges. Maxwell’s equations provide a complete description of the interactions among charges, currents, electric fields and magnetic fields. Maxwell laid the foundation of the modern theory of electromagnetism. His synthesis of electromagnetism stands as a great intellectual achievement, comparable to Newton’s synthesis of mechanics, Einstein’s theory of relativity and the development of quantum mechanics. These equations are equally important in electromagnetics like the three fundamental Newton’s law of motion in mechanics.
what do you understand by the topic materials science? and why is it so important in today's scenario?
Materials Science is the study about the electrical, mechanical, magnetic, optical, superconductivity properties of the existing materials and engineered materials. For using a specific material in a specific application, it is essential to study the various physical and chemical properties. here we deals with physical property only.