Tutor profile: Efim G.
What is the special rule concerning the letters к, г, х, ш, щ, ж, and ч?
After these letters, the letter и is written instead of the letter ы
Subject: World History
Describe Peter the Great's reforms of Russia's military.
Before the Petrine reforms, the Russian army consisted of a militia, feudal cavalry, and the Streltsi, a group of professional infantrymen started by Ivan the Terrible, who were given land for their occupation, and were permitted to work as artisans in peacetime. They were extremely prone to rebellions, and were as dangerous for their leaders as they were for their enemies. The Streltsi were not terribly efficient in battle, as well, and by the mid 17th century, Russia was relying heavily on foreign mercenaries to fight her wars. From his very childhood, Peter was obsessed with the idea of creating a strong standing army. As a teenager, he has organized his peers into “entertainer’s battalions” which were trained in the most modern fashion, and participated in mock battles, with Peter often playing the role of a mere officer. These later became Russia’s two most elite regiments Preobrazhenski and Semenovski, named after the villages where they were formed. However, this caused the dissatisfaction of the conservative elements among the Russian nobility (the boyars). The Streltsi, who felt threatened by the new units also joined the rebellion. Peter brutally crushed the rebellion, and as a result of their involvement with the rebels, as well as their general history of unreliability, the Streltsi were disbanded. Most of them were executed, along with the ringleaders of the boyars. This allowed Peter to continue his reforms of the military. The first order of business was replacing the old levy system. Under the new system, everyone was required to serve: both nobles and peasants. One man was to join the military from every 25, 30, or 50 households. For the peasant, this meant leaving their homes forever, as they were drafted into the military for life. Only in 1793 was the length of service shortened to 25 years. The new units were equipped and trained in the current European manner. In addition to that, Peter had established an extensive bureaucracy to deal with the needs of the military, which included the Military College (which administered the army), a Naval College, an Artillery Office under a General of Ordnance, a Commissariat under a Director General of Supplies, and a Main Supply office under a General of war supplies who was in charge of recruits, and a General Staff. This enabled the Russian forces to recover from their early defeats and emerge victorious from the Great Northern War. Peter’s other reforms included the creation of a navy, and a reform of the civil service, all of which have aided Russia greatly in its war with Sweden, and increased Russia’s prestige in Europe
Subject: Criminal Justice
What are the effects of prohibition on the development of transnational organized crime?
Prohibition had the effect of creating a massive black market in foreign luxury goods. Black markets are inherently criminogenic because illegal markets depend on predictability and the assurance of property rights just as much as legal markets do, but by defining a market as illegal, the state is officially excluding itself from regulating it . In legal markets, it is the role of the state to step in and mediate disputes and assure property rights, but this option is not available to black markets. Instead, organized crime groups arise to take on this role, either in the form of private enforcers using violence or threats of violence to protect specific illicit merchants while attacking their competitors, or in the form of alternative governance structures that use their status as neutral third parties to mediate disputes, enforcing their decisions through threats of violence. These governance structures are often financed by a form of tax- indeed the very concept of tariffs was borrowed by governments from Mediterranean pirates from the town of Tarifa, who levied tribute according to a fixed scale on all merchandise that passed through the area they controlled. The criminogenic effects of black markets can also be seen at other times in history, such as during the passage of the English Navigation Acts, which restricted goods that did not originate in England from being shipped to its American colonies, during Prohibition, and during the current War on Drugs, which had the effect of spawning organized crime groups both on the supply side (Colombian and Mexican cartels) and on the distribution side (drug-dealing street gangs) due to the reasons described above.
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