What does sociological theory contribute to the study of deviance and crime?
Functionalist theory sees both deviance and crime as functional for the society because it affirms what is acceptable by defining what is not. Structural strain theory, a type of functionalist theory, predicts that societal inequalities actually force and compel the individual into deviant and criminal behavior. Conflict theory explains deviance and crime as a consequence of unequal power relationships and inequality in society. Symbolic interaction theory explains deviance and crime as the result of meanings people give to various behaviors. Differential association theory, a type of symbolic interaction theory, interprets deviance as behavior learned through social interaction with other deviants. Labeling theory, also a type of symbolic interaction theory, argues that societal reactions to behavior produce deviance, with some groups having more power than others to assign deviant labels to people
What is reinforcement? Discuss the difference between positive and negative reinforcement and provide examples of each.
Reinforcement is used to help increase the likelihood that a specific behavior will occur in the future. If reinforcement is done correctly, it results in a specific behavior occurring more frequently in the future. There are two types of reinforcement, positive and negative. With positive reinforcement, a motivating or reinforcing (pleasant) stimulus is presented to the person after the desired behavior is exhibited. This makes the behavior more like to occur in the future. An example of positive reinforcement can be seen when a mother gives her child candy after the child picks up his/her toys. The candy is the reinforcing stimulus, which is presented after the desired behavior (picking up toys) is exhibited. Negative reinforcement occurs when a certain stimulus (usually an aversive stimulus) is removed after a particular behavior is exhibited. The likelihood of the particular behavior occurring again in the future is increased because of removing/avoiding the negative consequence. This should not be considered or confused with punishment, which decreased a behavior. With negative reinforcement, you are increasing a behavior. An example of negative reinforcement: Bob presses a button (behavior) in order to stop the annoying alarm (aversive stimulus).
What are literary techniques? Provide a list of 3 literary techniques along with the definition for each.
Literary techniques refer to any specific, deliberate constructions of language which an author uses to convey meaning. Unlike literary elements, literary techniques are not necessarily present in every text. Examples of literary techniques include imagery, similes, and personification. Imagery is the use of figurative language to create visual representations of actions, objects, and ideas in our mind in such a way that they appeal to our physical senses. Example: The room was dark and gloomy. Similes are figures of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind, used to make a description more emphatic or vivid. Similes use the words "like" or "as" to make a comparison. Example: She is as beautiful as a diamond. Personification occurs when something nonhuman is given human-like characteristics. Example: The flowers are dancing beside the lake.