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Tutor profile: Jasleen K.

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Jasleen K.
Analytical Chemistry Scientist
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Questions

Subject: Chemistry

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Question:

Does every single element have isotopes? If so, are there a certain amount of isotopes that each element has?

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Jasleen K.
Answer:

There are 20/118 known elements that have no isotopes. Each element that does, has a varying number of isotopes, ranging from one to ten.

Subject: Biochemistry

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Question:

Describe the key differences between anaerobic and aerobic glycolysis?

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Jasleen K.
Answer:

All cells in our body require glucose to function optimally. Glycolysis is the main pathway for glucose to metabolize and it occurs in the cytosol of cells. It is able to occur aerobically (with oxygen) and anaerobically (without oxygen). This is significant because under aerobic conditions, there is a net gain of 29 moles of ATP per mole of glucose. On the other hand, under anaerobic conditions, only 2 moles of ATP can be produced. Aerobic glycolysis happens in 2 parts. The first happens in the cytosol and coverts glucose into pyruvate, also producing NADH. This generates 2 molecules of ATP. Since oxygen is available, the energy contained in the NADH is captures via reoxidation of the mitochondrial eceltron chain and results in the release of about 30 more moles of ATP per glucose. However, when oxygen is short, NADH is reoxidized instead by reducing pyruvate to lactate. This severly limits the amount if ATP formed.

Subject: Biology

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Question:

What are the effects of smoking cigarettes on the gas exchange that takes place in the lungs and tissues?

Inactive
Jasleen K.
Answer:

Sticky mucus in the lungs traps pathogens. The mucus is normally swept out of the lungs by the cilia on the epithelial cells lining the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles. However, cigarette smoke contains harmful chemicals that damage these cells, leading to a build-up of mucus and a smoker’s cough. Smoke irritates the bronchi, causing bronchitis. Smoke damages the walls of the alveoli. The alveoli walls break down and join together, forming larger air spaces than normal. This reduces the efficiency of gas exchange, so people with the lung disease emphysema (a type of COPD or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) carry less oxygen in their blood and find even mild exercise difficult.

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