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Thomas H.
Undergraduate student , Teacher's assistant, Research Assistant, and Tutor
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Organic Chemistry
TutorMe
Question:

In infrared spectroscopy, what functional group and class of molecule are characterized by an intense, broad, and spike-less absorption approximately centered at 3300$$cm^{-1}$$?

Thomas H.
Answer:

An intense, broad, and spike-less absorption at 3300cm$$^{-1}$$ is indicative of the hydroxyl group of an alcohol molecule. The adsorption is broad due to hydrogen bonding, which naturally occurs in alcohols. While amines are also found at 3300cm$$^{-1}$$, primary, and secondary amines will show one, or two spikes respectively for the N-H stretch. Amines also do not have as intense an absorption when compared to alcohols.

Biomedical Science
TutorMe
Question:

What are the three essential components specific to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)?

Thomas H.
Answer:

G protein-coupled receptors contain: #1) A plasma membrane receptor with seven transmembrane helical segments. #2) A G protein that cycles between the active (GTP bound), and inactive (GDP bound) forms. #3) A membrane-bound effector molecule, that the active G protein regulates.

Biochemistry
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Question:

How do enzymes work?

Thomas H.
Answer:

Enzymes, for the most part, act as catalysts (are not consumed in the reaction) for reactions in the body. They function by lowering the activation energy of the reaction and providing transition state stability, both of which yield an increased reaction rate compared to the uncatalyzed reaction. This is accomplished through two types of interactions between the enzyme, and the substrate. First, transient covalent bonds form between the substrate and the enzyme's active site. These interactions can activate the substrate for reaction, or lead to the transient transfer of a functional group from the substrate to the enzyme and vice versa. Second, non-covalent interactions of the enzyme (amino acid residues, metal co-factors, van der Waals forces), and the substrate cause stabilization, and formation of an enzyme-substrate complex.

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