How did the United States become recognized as a major power through their involvement in World War I?
The United States was a late entry into World War I, due to Woodrow Wilson's want to be a neutral and isolated country, yet their contribution to the war effort allowed the United States to be a powerhouse in determining the post-war world. While Europe and the Middle East were the battlegrounds for the War, the US profited off of the war by selling munitions to both sides initially, then more aggressively to the Triple Entente. The US put the rest of Europe in debt to them, then eventually tipped the scales by becoming involved themselves. The US delivered decisive blows to Germany and Austria Hungary which forced them to surrender and be subject to the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. While Germany was an up and coming powerhouse in Europe at the beginning of the War, by the end, the Americans had replaced the Germans as the new rising power. They began to dictate world order not only at the Treaty of Versailles talks but also in the future. With many countries in debt to the US, both from the Triple Entente and Triple Alliance, the US became not only a military and navy powerhouse but also an economic machine. Woodrow Wilson would attempt to become the conductor of world peace by creating the League of Nations, but could not convince the US to actually join due to the American isolationist tendency. It became clear from WWI onward that the US could no longer be isolated from the rest of the world and would, in fact, need to be the trendsetters.
How did Johannes Gutenberg's printing press reshape European culture?
The printing press created by Gutenberg in the 1450s led to a mass increase in literacy rates in Europe. Previously, the Catholic church had a great control over literacy, thus many clergies were the only people both reading and writing. However, the printing press began to secularize literacy. This led to a decline in church authority and power over the masses of Europe. Thus, one thing attributable to the printing press can also be the Renaissance and Reformation. While many Europeans began to question the Catholic authority and interpretation of the Bible, others also began to turn towards writing that was not religiously focused. There was a rise in new ideas and understandings of mathematics, astrology, geography which all challenged the European previous understanding of the universe. The printing press did not do much to initially change the socio-economic standings in Europe, it did begin to radically impact the progression of Europe out of the medieval times and into a new modern era.
Why was the Boxer Rebellion of 1899-1901 such an important rebellion in Chinese History?
The Boxer Rebellion was a Chinese nationalist movement meant to throw out the Western influences in mainland China. The rebellion was conducted by martial arts practitioners that believed the foreign bullets would not harm them. It gained support in the interior of China suffering from the demoralization of foreign involvement through colonial practices. The rebellion was ultimately put down by invading foreign forces responding to an attack on Christian missionaries. The results of the rebellion created a large sectioning and colonizing effort in China by the Western world. China would be forced to pay reparations for the damages they caused to the foreign powers. China would have foreign troops in Beijing which was not only a sign that the Qing dynasty could no longer resist foreign involvement but also marked an end to the Qing and furthermore Dynastic China.