Tutor profile: Matthew B.
Subject: World History
Was China’s decline in the nineteenth century due more to internal problems or western imperialism?
The Qing Dynasty or Manchu Dynasty was seen as foriegn and not Chinese. The Manchu were from the north and an ethnic minority who were seen as destroying traditional Han culture in China. Most of the Chinese population lived outside of the areas under Western control or influence. The majority of the Chinese population was being impacted by the actions of the Qing and not outside forces. China experienced massive population growth in the 19th century thanks to crops from the Americas. There wasn’t enough resources or land available for the growing population. Along with high taxes and rents forced individuals off their land thus creating a massive roaming population. China attempted reforms especially with the military. There was debate whether to follow Western or Chinese ideas concerning reform of the Chinese armed forces. He disagreements about military reform created further division within the government thus preventing a unified idea about military reform. Local clans and warlords exercised control over different regions in China. This further weakened Chinese (Qing) central authority especially in the southern regions of China where Han influence was greater. The weakness of the Qing lead to lawlessness throughout the country. The Taiping Rebellion of 1850 to 1864 created further internal difficulties for China. The Qing Dynasty had to rely on the assistance of the British and French to crush the rebellion further demonstrating their inability to govern the country. The Taiping Rebellion lead to other rebellions: Nian Rebellion 1853-1868, Panthay Rebellion 1855-1873 and the Dungan Revolt of 1862-1877. The rebellions further weakened the country with increased civil unrest and lawlessness. The conflicts created refugees which flooded the cities creating further economic hardship and strain economic resources. The political vacuum created by the fighting allowed for more independent control of regions outside of Qing control. China was further decentralized thus making them more vulnerable and dependent to outside influences. The Boxer Rebellion was in a part a rebellion against the Qing Dynasty and not just European influence. Western powers were seen as assisting the Qing were already seen as being non-Chinese.
Subject: US History
Give the provisions of the Treaty of Paris (1763) as it relates to North America. Explain how the colonists reacted to the treaty, how the Native Americans reacted to it and how the British government attempted to deal with the new situation.
The Treaty of Paris granted the British full control over French Canada and the French were expelled from North America with some minor exceptions. The French would cede control of French Louisiana to Spain, which was agreed before the conclusion of the war. The British were awarded West and East Florida by Spain. The colonists in the American colonies were mostly delighted with the results of the treaty. The French had been removed from Canada which had been a major concern for them. There was the issue of the large population of Catholics in Canada. Since Britain the colonies were Protestant there were concerns if the Catholics would accept the defeat or poise a new threat to British rule in America.Protections were granted to the Catholics in Canada which wasn’t view favorable by the colonists. Americans and the British viewed Catholics as owing allegiance to a foreign prince. However the British Test Acts would be enforced among the Catholics of Canada. The colonists saw the Ohio Valley and the newly acquired lands from Spain and France to be open for settlement and trade. Colonial land speculators were eager to cash in on the new land available for settlement. Although Native Americans had fought on both sides the allies of the British thought the British would control settlement beyond the established colonial borders. It was believed the British would prevent further colonial settlement in newly acquired lands. The Native Americans believed they would be granted more self government. The British established the Royal Proclamation of 1763 which would prevent settlement to new lands gained in the war. It prevented settlement but not movement for trade. It was seen as temporary. The British believed in time settlement would take place but a slow pace or in a conservative manner. This was welcome by the Native America tribes in the area but not by the colonists. Most colonists ignored the order and settled in the new lands. The colonists believed they had fought the war the to remove the French and their allies allowing for new settlement in the west. These actions by the colonist resulted in fighting such as Pontiac’s Rebellion in 1763-1764. The British had to spend additional capital to combat the rebellions and maintain the peace which they lacked. The British had spent a great deal of money to win the war and were faced with economic hardships. The national debt from the war was enormous. The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was since as a means to maintain the peace since the British lacked the necessary resources to police the newly acquired lands. The British sent troops to patrol the line but lacked the numbers to enforce the order. The order was seen as maintaining the peace and preventing unnecessary violence between Native Americans and the colonists. The Native Americans viewed the British as not doing enough to maintain the peace and enforce the Royal Proclamation of 1763. The colonists view the British government as not doing enough to guarantee the Rights of Englishmen and the settlement in the new western lands.
Subject: European History
It has been argued that strong actions by England and France during the inter-war years would have prevented World War II and that appeasement only encouraged Hitler’s actions. How accurate is this statement?
The impact of the First World War shocked Europeans. The enormous loss of life and economic damage hadn’t been seen in Europe since the Thirty Years’ War. Since the end of the Napoleonic Wars European wars had been short in duration with minimal loss of life. The loss of life wasn’t the only factor in European favoring the policy of appeasement. Following the conclusion of the First World War Europe entered the 1920s with labor strikes and economic decline. Britain was rocked by labor strikes as was France. Britain and France were focused on their own economic problems. The British and the French were facing internal problems within their colonies. The British and French relied on the use of colonial troops to fight the war. The colonial troops had hoped for greater local control. However the British and the French were unwilling to grant more local control which sparked strikes and revolts in their colonies. Military resources had be used to deal with local issues in their colonies. By the 1930s there was a growing feeling in Britain that Germany had been treated unfairly at the conclusion of the First World War. There was little objection to Germany militarization the Rhineland. There was sympathy for Germans living outside of Germany. At the end of the First World War new nations were created with millions of ethnic Germans living outside of Germany. In 1938 the British Joint Chiefs informed Chamberlain there was nothing militarily the British could do to assist Czechoslovakia. The Royal Navy lacked enough ships to defend the whole of the empire. Most important there was an unwillingness to take action that might start a new war. The horrors of the war were still with Europeans and their had no desire to repeat what happened in the last war. Appeasement was very popular in Britain and France. A poll was conducted in Britain in 1938 which show majority support for appeasement and Chamberlain’s actions. If the worst happened the French still had the largest army in Europe and it was believed they would be able to stop Germany.
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