Tutor profile: George H.
Subject: International Relations
The UN recommended the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for 2000-2015. What were the specific goals in the MDGs?
Development Goals (MDGs) to be achieved by 2015. These were 8 goals dedicated to raise the standard of living and prosperity of human beings to reach the fundamental human necessities required to a sustain a basic lifestyle. MDGs are derived from the United Nations Millennium Declaration and each goal is backed up by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and emphasizes on development as a right to every human being. According to the United Nations the 8 goals are as follows: eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, universal primary education, gender equality, reducing the child mortality rate, improving maternal health, combatting diseases, environmental sustainability, global partnership for development The United Nations declared a specific target, or more than one, for each of the 8 goals. First, the goal aimed to cut to half the rate of people who live on less that $1.25 from 1990 to 2015. Also, reach a full or productive employment levels for everyone including women and young people, and cut in half the number of people who suffer from hunger from 1990 to 2015. Second, ensure that all children, boys and girls, are able to complete a full course of primary school. Third, eliminate gender disparity in all levels of education. Forth, reduce child mortality rate by two thirds from 1990 to 2015. Fifth, reduce maternal mortality ratio by two thirds from 1990 to 2015, and achieve universal access to reproductive health by 2015. Sixth, universal access for HIV/AIDS treatment for all those who need it, halt the disease by 2015 and then start to reverse it, halt malaria and other major diseases by 2015 then start to reverse it as well. Jeffery Sachs is an American economist and is known as one of the world’s leading experts on economic development and the fight against poverty. In the Spring of 2011 he published an article titled A Pioneering Perspective: The Global Social Movement Against Extreme Poverty to reflect on the United Nations’ progress regarding the MDGs. In his article, he was optimistic about reaching and achieving the goals in 2015 as expected for the following reasons. Sachs found that the MDGs are clearer and more powerful than any other alternative, stating that MDGs has had a powerful position in local, global, and national policymaking. Additionally, some states are considering MDGs in their plans and he also asserted on other international organizations “Global organizations such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB, and Malaria, the Global Alliance for vaccines and Immunizations, and the Global Agriculture and Food Security Program are all exemplary models of MDG-targeted donor funds organized around national results based planning in low-income countries.” Emphasizing on the clarity and power of the MDGs. Another reason for Sachs’ optimism is that the technology used to combat extreme poverty is improving; farming was remarkably improved through the use of new irrigation techniques, improved seed varieties, and sustainable farming practices. New business models, with the assistance of technology, has made mobile banking possible and very accessible. Isolation is diminishing through the use of information and communication technology. The last reason that demonstrates Sachs optimism would be the new development partners such as: multinational corporations, and NGOs stepping in to compensate for the lack of commitment from other states. As they are seeing their future in those developing countries. Sachs did see reasons to be optimistic and had high hopes for the MDGs to be a success, but he also had his doubts as he saw some obstacles that stood in the way of its fulfillment. He discussed that the biggest reason that calls for pessimism was climate change and the affects it has on the world. He mentions that climate change problem has extreme measures on MDGs and emphasized on it in his article “Throughout the developing world, there is increasing instability in rainfall and greater frequency of heat waves, flooding, dry spells, extreme storms, and other climate-related shocks. The poorest countries are often the most environmentally marginal.” Another reason that called for his pessimism is the continued population growth; high population growth in developing countries creates a tremendous problem when faced with the issue of scarce resources. It makes a country more likely to deepen its misery instead of helping it move forward.
Find the limit of a function as x approaches infinity
I can do it and I can explain it very well I swear but I cannot type calculus expressions to this box (I am able to do it during sessions)
London: bid= 0.95 pounds per dollar, ask=0.96 pounds per dollar. New York: bid= 1.05 dollars per pound ask=1.0527 dollars per pound. Is there arbitrage? Consider converting 1 pound to dollars in London then back to pounds in New York.
in London the dollar bid for the pound is 1/.096 =1.04 dollars per pound. selling 1 pound in London gives 1.04 dollars and converting back in New York means the trader pays 1.0527 dollars per pound; converting 1.04 dollars to pounds gives 0.988 pounds. thus, there is no arbitrage.
needs and George will reply soon.