What was distinctive about the slavery that emerged in the Americas?
The slavery that materialized in the Americas was distinct in assorted ways. For example, the enormous traffic of slaves and its importance to the economy of colonial America. The demand of slaves was so high due to the tasks that the slaves were required to do. During the Crusades, the Europeans discovered sugar and the process in which it is made. Many of the slaves were sent to either Brazil, the Caribbean, or the United States. New World slavery was based on large-scale plantation agriculture. In Brazil and the Caribbean the slaves were required to work in sugar-producing plantations. The sugar plantations were vigorous and often cause many slaves to die, in result causing the demand for more slaves. Slaves were dehumanized, treated as property, and lacked basic human rights in society. Slaves were inherited and there was little hope for eventual freedom. The racism used to justify the actions of slave owners was also unique. The intellectual legitimization attempted on its behalf - the development of anti-black ideology in European cultures. All these factors created a distinct form of slavery in the Americas.
Explain why it was Britain that made the early breakthrough in the Industrial Revolution.
Political, scientific, and geographic factors influenced Britain to kick start the Industrial Revolution. The British had contrasting political ideas than those of other European countries, ideas that primarily focused on the success of business, “British political life encouraged commercialization and economic innovation." The British established a policy of religious toleration that welcomed people with technical skill regardless of their faith. The British also employed the use of high tariffs that benefited English businessmen and kept imports out. Furthermore, formed laws that made it easy to form companies, forbid workers’ unions, and patent laws that protected the interests of investors. Politically, the British provided a distinctly freer land for private enterprise than other European countries. In the realm of science, the British crafted their own unique ideas during the Scientific Revolution, “Whereas science in continental Europe was largely based on logic, deduction, and mathematical reasoning, in Britain it was much more concerned with observation, experiment, precise measurements, mechanical devices, and practical commercial applications." This kind of thinking helped shaped the steam engine. The final factor that influenced Britain’s plunge into the Industrial Revolution was its geography. The nation had a steady supply of coal and iron that were usually located near each other and within reach of major industrial centers. Britain’s location also allowed it to not be hampered by the conquests of Napoleon. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, Britain was on the path to industrialization whereas the other European countries were recovering from the debilitating wars.
Explain how the Atlantic slave trade transformed African societies?
The Atlantic slave trade transformed African societies in a myriad of ways. One way was that the population growth in sub-Saharan Africa was stagnated. In 1600, sub-Saharan Africa represented about 18% of the world’s population, however in 1900 they only represented 6% of the world’s population. The slave trade not only drastically disrupted population growth, but African society and economy as well. It fostered moral corruption, particularly as judicial proceedings were manipulated to generate victims for the slave trade. It disrupted and corrupted state authorities. The slave trade had limited impact on the economy of Africa. “Economically, the slave trade stimulated little positive change in Africa because those Africans who benefited most from the traffic in people were not investing in the productive capacities of their societies”. Overall, the slave trade had a transformed African society and had a negative impact on it.