Tutor profile: Mandy P.
Subject: Library and Information Science
Sample reference question: "Who is Ernie Harwell?"
Ernie Harwell was an American journalist, sportscaster, and writer. In 1981, he was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame’s Ford C. Frick broadcasters wing. He is the author of the book "Tuned to Baseball" and wrote several articles for various magazines, including "Reader’s Digest." I found this information using the biographical source Gale In Context: Biography. I did a basic search for “Harwel, Erniel.” Is there any other information or resources I can help you locate? ("Ernie Harwell." Gale Literature: Contemporary Authors, Gale, 2010. Gale In Context: Biography, link.gale.com/apps/doc/H1000043174/BIC?u=milwaukee&sid=BIC&xid=2466d563. Accessed 15 Mar. 2021.)
What is the trolley problem?
The trolley problem is a philosophical thought experiment developed by philosopher Philippa Foot in 1967. There are different variations of the trolley problem, but the basic premise is always the same. A runaway trolley is racing down a set of railroad tracks. Straight ahead of it, five people are on the tracks, unable to move out of the way. You are standing near the track by a lever. If you were to pull the lever, you would divert the trolley to a side track, saving the five individuals. However, there is a single individual tied to the side track. If you pull the lever, the individual on the side track will die. If you do not pull the lever, the five individuals straight ahead will die. The question is, what is the morally superior action to take? The trolley problem creates a moral dilemma that is heavily debated by philosophers. On one-hand, we have a negative duty not to do harm. Thus, it would be wrong to pull the lever because it would lead to the death of one person. However, we also have a positive duty to help others. Therefore, pulling the lever would be the ethical option because it would save the lives of five people. There is no one agreed upon solution. The purpose of the experiment is to explore and apply different ethical theories.
What is the difference between within-subject design and between-subject design?
With between-subject design, different participants will each test one condition. This is typically done by using multiple groups and giving each group a different experimental treatment. The purpose is to measure the differences between the groups. - Example: To test the effectiveness of a new drug, researchers use two groups. Group A is given the drug, and Group B is given a placebo. By comparing the results of the two groups overtime, researchers can determine the relative effectiveness of the drug. With a within-subject design, every participant will test each of the conditions. This means each participant will receive all levels of the independent variable. The purpose is to measure the differences in the participant across different trials. - Example: To test the effectiveness of a new drug, researchers start by giving each participant a placebo and measure any changes over a pre-determined set of time. Researchers will then administer the drug to each participant and repeat the process. By comparing the results of the placebo trial against the results of the drug trial, researchers are able to measure the relative effectiveness of the drug.
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