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Tutor profile: Utkarsha V.

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Utkarsha V.
College Junior and Writing Fellow
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Questions

Subject: International Studies

TutorMe
Question:

Analyze continuity and change in World politics and answer the following question: Will the international relations of the 21st century look like the international relations of the 20th century?

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Utkarsha V.
Answer:

I will discuss three factors to show differences in international relations between the 20th and 21st centuries. Shifts in polarity: The world post-WW2 was bipolar between the US and USSR. This bipolarity started to shift into unipolarity as the USSR fell back in its demographic composition and military technology compared to the US (Waltz, 54). Another round of polarity shifts can now be seen with China’s recent economic and militaristic growth, “vis-á-vis the US” (Nye, 40). This could be an attempt to push US influence out of Asia and militarily weaken its neighbors to become the regional hegemon (Mearsheimer). Thus, the American commitment to maximizing its “culture of innovation”, maintaining alliances with China’s neighbors (Mearsheimer), and involvement in transnational issues (Nye) could be ways to maintain US hegemony. Nuclear deterrence: During World War 2, countries could cause grievous damages to each other, but no state had hegemony over the use of arms. Following the US’ pursuit of nuclear weapons, IR became centered around states’ nuclear capabilities. Norms against the use of nuclear weapons have led to nuclear deterrence becoming a defense move and a balance of power tactic. As Walt argues, in the case of the US and China, nuclear capability can be capped by “bringing China into the same negotiating framework” as the USSR. This shows that nuclear conflicts are a very unlikely option and offensive realism, unlike the 20th century, is not a state’s primary choice. The advent of nuclear weapons has established that the size of “respective arsenals is irrelevant” (Walt, 59). Instead, mutually assured destruction has incentivized states’ attempts at cooperation through trade and globalization efforts. Rise of globalization and interdependence: Following 1991, there was the construction of “a new world order” (Keohane, 76) where legalization, legalism, and moralism functioned together to instill ideas of cooperation through institutions that helped tame states to “maintain and use power” (Keohane, 78). Furthermore, globalization has compressed distances globally, decreasing the cost of exerting power on other states. Moreover, trade has established an arena of cooperation among states and motivated them to seek positive relationships and minimize conflict. This interdependence has created an environment of “industrialized democracies with respect to trade, foreign investment, etc” making arrangements that tend to the issues of the modern world such as climate change. Globalization has brought to the forefront many such problems and demanded cohesive action from states through trade and alliance cooperation.

Subject: Statistics

TutorMe
Question:

Given the scenario of two candidates who are running for a seat in a county, construct null and alternative hypotheses supporting the argument that Candidate A will get a majority vote and win the seat.

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Utkarsha V.
Answer:

In this question, we will have to design null and alternative hypotheses and use the t-test, given sigma is unknown, or the z-test given sigma is known, to support the hypothesis Ha: true mean > 50 and Ho: true mean is equal to or < 50. In this scenario, let's assume sigma or the standard deviation is the population standard deviation. We will then conduct the z-test. Here are the following values: standard deviation: 2 true mean: 6 x: 4 alpha: .05 z-critical at alpha .05 is 1.645 (one-tailed test) z-calc, calculated with the formula 4-6/2 is -1.00, which in absolute value is, 1.00 p-value is calculated at z = 1.00, at 0.1587 As z-critical > z-calc and p-value > alpha at .05, Ha is rejected. Candidate a does not get a majority of votes, and hence, will lose the seat in the elections.

Subject: Microeconomics

TutorMe
Question:

I will discuss three factors to show differences in international relations between the 20th and 21st centuries. Shifts in polarity The world post-WW2 was bipolar between the US and USSR. This bipolarity started to shift into unipolarity as the USSR fell back in its demographic composition and military technology compared to the US (Waltz, 54). Another round of polarity shifts can now be seen with China’s recent economic and militaristic growth, “vis-á-vis the US” (Nye, 40). This could be an attempt to push US influence out of Asia and militarily weaken its neighbors to become the regional hegemon (Mearsheimer). Thus, American commitment to maximizing its “culture of innocation”, maintaining alliances with China’s neighbors (Mearsheimer) and involvement in transnational issues (Nye) could be ways to maintain US hegemony. Nuclear deterrence. During World War 2, countries could cause grievous damages to each other, but no state had hegemony over the use of arms. Following the US’ pursuit of nuclear weapons, IR became centered around states’ nuclear capabilities. Norms against use of nuclear weapons has led to nuclear deterrence becoming a defense move and a balance of power tactic. As Walt argues, in the case of US and China, nuclear capability can be capped by “bringing China into the same negotiating framework” as the USSR. This shows that nuclear conflicts are a very unlikely option and offensive realism, unlike the 20th century, is not a state’s primary choice. The advent of nuclear weapons has established that the size of “respective arsenals is irrelevant” (Walt, 59). Instead, mutually assured destruction has incentivized states’ attempts at cooperation through trade and globalization efforts. Rise of globalization and interdependence Following 1991, there was the construction of “a new world order” (Keohane, 76) where legalization, legalism, and moralism functioned together to instill ideas of cooperation through institutions that helped tame states to “maintain and use power” (Keohane, 78). Furthermore, globalization has compressed distances globally, decreasing the cost of exerting power on other states. Moreover, trade has established an arena of cooperation among states and motivated them to seek positive relationships and minimize conflict. This interdependence has created an environment of “industrialized democracies with respect to trade, foreign investment, etc” making arrangements that tend to the issues of the modern world such as climate change. Globalization has brought to the forefront many such problems and demanded cohesive action from states through trade and alliance cooperation.

Inactive
Utkarsha V.
Answer:

I will discuss three factors to show differences in international relations between the 20th and 21st centuries. Shifts in polarity The world post-WW2 was bipolar between the US and USSR. This bipolarity started to shift into unipolarity as the USSR fell back in its demographic composition and military technology compared to the US (Waltz, 54). Another round of polarity shifts can now be seen with China’s recent economic and militaristic growth, “vis-á-vis the US” (Nye, 40). This could be an attempt to push US influence out of Asia and militarily weaken its neighbors to become the regional hegemon (Mearsheimer). Thus, American commitment to maximizing its “culture of innocation”, maintaining alliances with China’s neighbors (Mearsheimer) and involvement in transnational issues (Nye) could be ways to maintain US hegemony. Nuclear deterrence. During World War 2, countries could cause grievous damages to each other, but no state had hegemony over the use of arms. Following the US’ pursuit of nuclear weapons, IR became centered around states’ nuclear capabilities. Norms against use of nuclear weapons has led to nuclear deterrence becoming a defense move and a balance of power tactic. As Walt argues, in the case of US and China, nuclear capability can be capped by “bringing China into the same negotiating framework” as the USSR. This shows that nuclear conflicts are a very unlikely option and offensive realism, unlike the 20th century, is not a state’s primary choice. The advent of nuclear weapons has established that the size of “respective arsenals is irrelevant” (Walt, 59). Instead, mutually assured destruction has incentivized states’ attempts at cooperation through trade and globalization efforts. Rise of globalization and interdependence Following 1991, there was the construction of “a new world order” (Keohane, 76) where legalization, legalism, and moralism functioned together to instill ideas of cooperation through institutions that helped tame states to “maintain and use power” (Keohane, 78). Furthermore, globalization has compressed distances globally, decreasing the cost of exerting power on other states. Moreover, trade has established an arena of cooperation among states and motivated them to seek positive relationships and minimize conflict. This interdependence has created an environment of “industrialized democracies with respect to trade, foreign investment, etc” making arrangements that tend to the issues of the modern world such as climate change. Globalization has brought to the forefront many such problems and demanded cohesive action from states through trade and alliance cooperation.

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