What is the "Lemon test" in U.S. politics?
The lemon test came out of the landmark 1971 U.S. Supreme Court case of Lemon V. Kurtzman. The test comes in three parts in order to check any violations of the Establishment Clause. Three questions must be addressed: 1.) Is the original legislation secular in purpose? 2.) Does the legislation both not advance religion nor inhibit it? 3.) Does the legislation prevent entanglement of government and religion?
What is the difference between political parties and interested groups in America?
Political parties are organizations of people with shared values and ideas about a government who recruit, nominate, and support candidates for office. Interest groups do not support their own candidates for office but lobby government officials directly. They can donate money to certain issues or candidates.
What is the theoretical significance of the U.S. Declaration of Independence? What are the principles or “truths” on which it is based? How does it relate political legitimacy to human rights?
Theoretical significance: The declaration is a radical, unique document that declared independence from Britain because the colonists believed Britain was overstepping its power. Ensures human rights as self-evidence truths: life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Has influenced other governments around the world. Principles or truths: -Equality— “all men are created equal.” -Endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights (life, liberty, pursuit of happiness) -Governments derive their powers through consent of the governed -People have the right to institute a new government if government becomes corrupt Political legitimacy to human rights: Declaration connects/overlaps human and legal rights. It clearly states what rights are guaranteed by the government while maintaining that you have rights the moment you are born just because you are a human.