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Tutor profile: Erin T.

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Erin T.
Tutor for 7 years
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Questions

Subject: Psychology

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Question:

How would you convince someone that the mind is not separate from the brain?

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Erin T.
Answer:

The brain and mind are interdependent. The mind-body problem really isn’t a problem at all, but it is a common misconception. The mind-body or mind-brain connection is everything. We cannot have a functioning brain without a functioning mind and vice versa. The physical brain’s mechanics, create the mind and all of its functions. Without the energy and mechanisms of a physical working brain, there is no mind. There would be nothing but a dead piece of tissue; dead neurons with no energy, no action potentials, and nothing to communicate to each other. As is, without a mind, without a conscious control, the brain would likely behave abnormally. If the brain were to get electrical impulses, they would probably be sent randomly, without any kind of order or direction. There would not be a purpose for any of the lobes or hormones or neurotransmitters, because each of them is an important cog in the communication between the mind and brain. The brain essentially lays the foundation for the mind, it is the tools. And the mind is the mechanic, moving and manipulating the tools to get the correct outcome. I would probably give an example of vision. If someone is blind, whether it is a problem with the eye, or the brain, the brain cannot receive &/or comprehend the light as a person with normally functioning vision could. This does not mean that the light doesn’t exist, nor does it mean that the brain or eye don’t exist. It simply means that the connection needed between the mind and the brain necessary to understand the photons of light, does not exist or it is abnormal. Another example I can give is mental illness. Mental illness symptoms are almost always psychological, with physical symptoms as well. However, there is an underlying physiological abnormality that is tangible and can be pinpointed, measured, studied, and in some cases altered by medicine or surgery. But these physical treatments have an actual effect on the psychological symptoms. Medications specifically, are targeted chemically and biologically to the brain’s physiology. SSRI’s for example, are designed to inhibit the re-uptake of serotonin. The excess of serotonin which can sometimes cause re-uptake by the pre-synaptic neuron, can have very negative effects. However, they are not only physical effects. Our physical brain experiences physical functions (whether normal or abnormal), but we experience them psychologically, in our minds. Other examples include Phineas Gage, who endured and survived a physical trauma to his frontal lobe, but his personality was left forever changed. The physical trauma affected who he was, his temperament, his likes, and his personality. People with disorders such as depression have physically changes in their brains that alter their moods, motivations, preferences, and even their self-confidence.

Subject: Basic Chemistry

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Question:

How do you balance a chemical reaction?

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Erin T.
Answer:

First, make sure to write out your entire reaction equation (reactants --> products). Then, double-check to make sure you have written everything down correctly (It’s easy to make small mistakes). Ie: Combustion of Methane: CH4 (g) + O2 (g) CO2 (g) + H2O (l) Now, it's time to start counting the number of atoms on each side of the equation. You are comparing the number of atoms in the reactants vs. the number of atoms in the products, so keep them separate. Your goal is to have the same amount of each atom on both sides of the equation. Because remember: The Law of Conservation= Atoms cannot be created nor destroyed, they are indestructible. They cannot be broken into smaller parts. This means that whenever we have a reaction, there will be the same number of atoms of each element on the right and left side of the equation. A good rule to go by: Save O's and H's for last! Start with other letters. Start with one letter at a time, for example, count the C’s. Left (Reactants): Right (Products): Even Number? C= 1 C= 1 Same number √ H= 4 H= 2 (X2) We need to multiply the H2O in products X2 H= 4 H= 4 Same number √ O= 2 (X2) O= 4 We now have a higher # of O in products because we multiplied “H2O” in last step. So, we now need to even out the # of O’s in reactants. So, we multiply O2 X2 O= 4 O=4 Same number √ Final, Balanced Equation: CH4 (g) + 2O2 (g) CO2 (g) + 2H2O (l)

Subject: Biology

TutorMe
Question:

How does a Punnett square work?

Inactive
Erin T.
Answer:

Vocab/Important Concepts: *Genotypes= alleles/genetic makeup. (I.e.: AA, Aa, aa) *Phenotypes= physical trait due to genotype (i.e.: color, size, texture, etc.) This example: Height *Dominant alleles will always show up in the phenotype. “DOMINATES TRAITS” *Traits from Recessive alleles do not show up when paired with a dominant allele. We only see recessive traits when they are paired with another recessive allele. (CAN’T SEE, BUT YOU DO WHEN THERE’S TWO) AA= Homozygous Dominant = Tall Aa= Heterozygous = Tall aa= Homozygous Recessive= Short As diploids, our cells contain 2 copies of each chromosome; 1 copy from mother, one from father. Each chromosome has thousands of different sections, or genes. Each gene has its own different forms, called alleles. When two parents reproduce offspring, their chromosomes are combined randomly. The Punnett square allows us to quantify the chances (percentages) of each outcome of mixed genes for a single trait (more than one trait can be done, but it is more complicated, so start with simple Punnett squares, with only 1 trait). For example: Draw a square, then divide it into 4 smaller squares. We now have 4 boxes, 4 possibilities. We are only looking at one trait, so each parent has a genotype combination including “A” and “a”; they can be AA, Aa, or aa. But each parent only donates 1 allele per pair. For each pair of alleles, one allele comes from the mother, the other allele comes from the father. For this example, both Mom and Dad have “Aa” genotype. Separate the father’s genotype across the top (horizontally). “A” over the top left square, and “a” over the top right square. Now fill in the squares directly below the new letters. “A’s” goes below the father’s “A”, in the top left square, and a second “A” in the bottom left square. Next, do the same with his “a’s”. The “a’s” goes below the father’s “a”, in the top right square, and a second “a” in the bottom right square. Now, Separate the mother’s genotype down along the left side, (vertically). Put her “A” to the left of the top left square, and “a” to the left of the bottom right square. Now fill in the squares to the right of the new letters. The “A’s” go to the right of the mother’s “A”, in the top left square, and a second “A” in the top right square. Next, do the same with her “a’s”. The “a’s” go to the right of the mother’s “a”, in the bottom left square, and a second “a” in the bottom right square. Genotypes: This gives us from top left to bottom right: AA, Aa, Aa, aa AA= ¼ * 100 = 25% Homozygous Dominant Aa= ½ * 100 = 50% Heterozygous aa= ¼ * 100 = 25% Homozygous Recessive Phenotypes: This gives us from top left to bottom right: AA, Aa, Aa, aa AA= ¼ * 100 = 25% Tall Aa= ½ * 100 = 50% Tall aa= ¼ * 100 = 25% Short (1)AA + (2)Aa = 25% + 50% = 75% Tall (1)aa = 25% Short

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