What were the causes of the AIDS epidemic and drug crisis during the 1980s? Why was the federal government slow and ineffective in its responses? What were the aftereffects of this delay on AIDS research? Write 250 word essay examining these questions.
The causes of the AIDS epidemic and drug crisis during 1980s were two-fold. One, was the fact that homosexual men were indulging in unsafe intercourse and that was seen a major cause. This was fuelled by the drug crisis as well, because men and women alike were injecting drugs into their bodies through needles, and these needles were being exchanged frequently. Therefore, there was a huge probability that a drug user could have using an infected needle. The federal government’s response could be said to have been slow. This is not because they were not concerned about the epidemic being spread. But were at a loss because AIDS’s effects develop over time and couldn’t be understood immediately. Also, a major reason for slower response can be attributed to the fact that this was the first time the world had discovered this virus. The government couldn’t afford to take any hasty decision regarding administration of medicines and implementation of certain norms regarding sexual intercourse. There was also delayed response because the government was still trying to understand how this virus spreads. There were a lot of causes and myths that were building up at the time that this virus came into news. Therefore, unless proper analyzation and research didn’t take place. The government couldn’t have possibly taken a decision. The after-effects of a delayed response impacted the groundwork that was laid for the research of this virus. The problem was there a disconnect between the policy makers and the scientists. The government didn’t really see it as a serious problem and therefore research and money for research was fairly limited. This meant that research took years before they could finally come to solutions and some sort of policy to implement regarding the virus.
Klopp is the only shareholder of JK, Inc. Klopp Stop's main competition is Old Trafford Corp., d/b/a Red Devil Inn. Klopp does not like Red Devil Inn at all, and has encouraged his employees to share in his animosity towards all things Red Devil, and to come up with creative ways to bring down Red Devil Inn. Two of Klopp's more ambitious employees, J.D. and Veronica Sawyer, who run the Klopp Stop in St. Paul, took Klopp's words to heart, and hatched a plan to sabotage the Red Devil Inn located right across the street. J.D. and Veronica invited Heather Chandler and Heather Duke, who run that Red Devil location, to drinks after work one day. The Heathers both agreed, even though they had to work the front desk the next morning, and met J.D. and Veronica at O'Gara’s, none of them changing out of their work uniforms before hitting the bar. J.D. tipped the bartender $50 at the start, so that J.D. and Veronica were served seltzer water all night long while the Heathers were served straight vodka. After the 10th round the Heathers both passed out. J.D. got up off his barstool and grabbed a wheelbarrow from the parking lot and pushed it into the bar, and he and Veronica loaded the two Heathers and pushed them out of O'Gara's. J.D. also handcuffed the two Heathers to the wheelbarrow, but left the keys to the cuffs at their feet. They pushed the wheelbarrow onto the light rail, and headed to downtown Minneapolis. J.D. and Veronica proceeded to parade the Heathers in the wheelbarrow from bar to bar, and many bar patrons took selfies with the passedout Heathers, posing them various positions for the photos, and so on. At one point in pushing them around J.D. hit a bump in the road he didn’t see, and the Heathers tumbled out, and scraped their knees and shins, before J.D. and Veronica could get them back into the wheelbarrow. At the end of the night J.D. and Veronica pushed the still passed out Heathers to their Red Devil Inn location, and left them right at the front desk, at the time they were supposed to start working, at the height of checkout time. Klopp buys most of his bedding for his hotels from an entrepreneur named Steff McKee. Steff is a really low key guy, and hates formalities, but he offers the best deals around and Klopp always feels cooler when he’s around Steff. Klopp has routinely purchased new bedding materials – sheets, blankets, and pillows from Steff every six months, always the same number of goods, and always for the same price. Klopp pays the amount upfront, and Steff delivers usually within 60 days. Steff usually just wants to just shake on the deal, which has worked in the past, but Klopp is worried that at some point Steff is going to screw him over, because he’s just that kind of guy, and is looking to better protect himself against Steff. One of Klopp’s properties near the U used to be a Klopp Stop, but Klopp converted it to an apartment building a few years back. He hasn’t been paying attention to it, and all of the term leases have now converted to month to month leases under Minnesota law. There are 20 apartment units in this building, all of them rented. All of the tenants paid damage deposits in the amount of $1,000.00 at the beginning of their lease, and all of the monthly rent is identical for each tenant - $1,000.00 per month, due on the 1st of the month. Klopp wants to tear this place down and build a movie theater, but he’s unsure of how to get the existing tenants out. Klopp, through JK, Inc. also owns a number of laundry businesses – it makes it easier to just own the launders than to pay for all the bedding that he has to have cleaned on a daily basis. JK, Inc. owns 4 large laundry facilities in Minnesota, 2 in Wisconsin, 1 in Iowa and 1 in North Dakota. JK, Inc. owns the land as well that all laundry facilities are located upon. Overall JK, Inc. owns 50 Klopp Stop hotels, and owns the land upon which each hotel is located. JK, Inc. also owns the aforementioned apartment building, and the land upon which that is located. The company just grew so fast, Klopp never got into much corporate planning, and is wondering if he should do some corporate restructuring instead of having all of his businesses in one company. As you prepare for your meeting with Klopp and Beckenbauer, make sure you address the following issues: 1. Is JK, Inc. liable for any of the actions of J.D. and Veronica, and if so, what is the company liable for? 2. What can or should Klopp do to better protect JK, Inc. in its dealings with Steff McKee? 3. What, if anything, can Klopp do regarding the tenants so he can build his movie theater, how long will it take, and what procedures must be followed? 4. Should Klopp just keep everything in JK, Inc., or are there better ways to structure his businesses? If so, what should he do, and why?
ANSWERS 1. For JK, Inc. to be liable for the actions of J.D. and Veronica, we need to establish the following things. One, are J.D. and Veronica agents of JK Inc. and second, if they are agents, then were they acting on the instructions of their Principal. Also, the kind of liability will have to be established. Under vicarious liability, an employer can be liable for the acts or omissions of its employees, given that the actions were either taken in the course of the employment or they were done on the instructions of the Principal. Regarding the first question, J.D. and Veronica run who run the Klopp Stop in St. Paul are employees of the JK Inc, which means that they in fact agents and JK Inc, is the principal in this case. Regarding the second question, we need to understand what were the instructions of the Principal. In this case, Klopp had encouraged all his employees to share in his animosity towards all things Red Devil, and to come up with creative ways to bring down Red Devil Inn. The words and meaning of ‘creative ways’ can be interpreted in various ways and therefore, the agents were only acting on the instructions of the Principal. And therefore, the Principal is vicariously liable for the actions of his agents. 2. To better protect himself, Klopp must make a formal contract with Steff. A contract is a voluntary arrangement between two or more parties that is enforceable at law as a binding legal agreement. A contract ensures a number of things, like it reduces risk, provides clarity over what items are being bought or sold and at what price. Once the contract mentions the price and both parties agree to this price, neither party can negotiate further or deliver goods that are less than the agreed quantity. Klopp has the choice of making a contract which is either monthly or yearly, which is known as installment contracts. And if either party fails to performance his part of the contract, the other party can sue the defaulting party in a court of law. However, keeping in mind that Steff is a person who might not get into a legal binding contract, goes to show that he might default sometime in the future. Thus, if Klopp has the option of going to another supplier and making a contract with him/her, that would be the best alternative in this case. 3. Klopp can either evict his tenants or give them a written notice to evict the premises of the building within a given reasonable time so that the tenants can have an opportunity to find alternative housing. However, eviction can happen on only the following grounds: a) Staying on the property after the lease expires. b) Causing major damage to your property, but you must prove this damage in court. c) Breaking specific rules, you’ve set out in the agreement, like noise restrictions, guest limitations, or pet rules. From looking at the facts, it seems that none of these conditions are present. Thus, eviction cannot happen. The next alternative for Klopp is to wait for all the tenant-landlord leases to expire. This might take a while since different tenants would be having leases that expire at different times. There are steps that Klopp would have to take that are mentioned in the Landlord and Tenant Act. Klopp can also exercise the option of forfeiting the lease but this is only possible if the leases he made had that clause. Therefore, Klopp cannot certainly go to court to evict his tenant since they have done nothing wrong and haven’t violated terms of the lease. Thus, Klopp will have to wait till all leases expire. 4. There are much better ways to manage Klopp’s various businesses. This is basically called restructuring, it is the corporate management term for the act of reorganizing the legal, ownership, operational, or other structures of a company for the purpose of making it more profitable, or better organized for its present needs. The most beneficial way in would be to form one big conglomerate. This means that there are different companies that might or might not be associated in terms of the market but are part of the same group. In simple words, it means that there is a parent company and other companies are its subsidiaries. Klopp can have his laundry business and his hotels under one big company. This helps to reduce investment risk, which means that if the laundry business is suffering losses, the hotel business can make up for the losses. And since only Klopp is the only share-holder, it means absolutely no level of risk. Later if his company grows, he can acquire other small companies as well. There, Klopp must work towards making his other businesses as subsidiary to his Hotel business. All of these companies must operate under a conglomerate and under the parent company of J D Inc.
Where does the theory of mercantilism fit into International relations?
The theory of Mercantilism includes a national economic policy that aims at maintaining the monetary reserves along with a positive balance of trade. According to some mercantilists, the increasing population would outgrow its resources and the need to develop bigger markets and armies may arise. The theory of Mercantilism fits into international relations on the basis of the principles mentioned below. Mercantilists thought that the amount of wealth in the world would remain unchanged. They believed that a country's wealth just includes the amount of precious metal or bullions it has. Encouraging exports over imports so as to get a favorable balance in foreign trade. A large population of a country would be the key to autonomy and state power. They had a belief that the state should play a dominant role in assisting and directing the national and international economies to these ends.