Tutor profile: Emily S.
How do you know when to use a semicolon or a colon?
A semicolon is best used when it is linking two related but independent clauses. Examples: I like to drink lemonade; Mom likes to drink tea. I did not finish reading for class; instead, I played board games with my roommate. A colon is best used to introduce a dependent clause that emphasizes or illustrates the previous clause. The dependent clause can be an example, an explanation, or an emphasis. It can also be used to introduce a list of things. Examples: People need three things to survive: air, water, and food. You have two choices: clean your room or skip the party.
What is the difference between behaviorism and cognitivism?
Behaviorism, a field of psychology "fathered" by BF Skinner, focuses primarily on the observable behaviors of others. That is, behaviorism seeks to understand and explain the world through a person's outward behaviors. Cognitivism, on the other hand, "fathered" by Ulric Neisser, challenged behaviorist theories by seeking to understand and explain the world through cognitive processes, such as decisions, memory, and perception. A good way to think about the difference is that behaviorism is like the outside of a coconut; we can only know what we see - a brown, rough exterior. Cognitivism wants to break into the coconut, and then we can discover that there is meat and water that is also a part of the coconut.
What is the difference between an alpha value and the p-value?
An alpha value is a standard for how extreme the data must be before we reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis. The alpha value is also type 1 error, or the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true - think of it as a false negative. The p-value is how extreme the data actually are. We compare the alpha value and the p-value to determine if we reject or accept the null hypothesis.
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