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Tutor profile: Elle W.

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Elle W.
PhD Student in Clinical Neuropsychology With Expertise in Psychology, Statistics, Test Preparation, and Writing
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Questions

Subject: Writing

TutorMe
Question:

What are important steps to consider in the writing process?

Inactive
Elle W.
Answer:

Writing from scratch can seem daunting, but with appropriate organization and giving yourself ample time to complete the task, it can be fun and rewarding to see an original product come to life. Some steps that may help with organization when writing original work are outlined below: 1) Pre-write. Before sitting down and putting words on a page, it may be helpful to think about what you want to say. Take some time to reflect on the question or prompt and the type of message you would like to convey. 2) Organize. Once you know what you would like to convey, spend some time researching the information that is out there on your topic (if applicable), and provide yourself with the opportunity to organize your thoughts and the information you would like to convey. Creating a bullet-point list of paragraph topics and the points within them may help you see where there are gaps in your flow or how to best organize and present the information. 3) Draft. Your first draft is rarely a final draft. By not waiting until the last minute to write, you are allowing yourself the ability to draft work, step away from it for a bit, and then come back and read it with fresh eyes. This will allow you to better identify areas for improvement (or even smaller grammatical and formatting errors). 4) Revise. Revise, revise, revise. Go through your work paragraph-by-paragraph or line-by-line and find ways to improve and polish your product. 5) Proof. Do a final run-through, checking for grammar and spelling mistakes. One helpful tip is to read your work aloud.

Subject: Study Skills

TutorMe
Question:

What are some steps that can be taken to enhance one’s studying?

Inactive
Elle W.
Answer:

There are many steps that can be taken to enhance studying, and it is important to consider the individual and the type of environment that helps best promote their own learning style. However, below are some examples of what effective study strategies may entail: 1) Determine the ideal time to study. Many students need to spend most of their time studying in the evenings after school. However, the evening can be broken up into various timepoints that should be considered. It is probably not best to study immediately before bed, as you may be tired when studying (thus limiting effective encoding), or it may impact your ability to fall asleep or stay asleep (thus limiting your alertness and ability to learn the next day). Instead, it may be best to study right after school while the material is still relatively fresh from the day. Then, you can take a break to allow your brain to consolidate information while you eat dinner, spend time outside, etc. In the evening you could do a quick review for a few minutes to provide an extra exposure to the material, but not too close to before going to bed. 2) Limit distractions. It is important to limit distractions in your environment while studying. Sometimes group work may be appropriate, but at other times it may be best to learn independently. It is best to turn off and disengage from technology such as a cell phone or a TV in the background. You can also use your devises as rewards for quality studying. For example, study diligently for 20 minutes and then have a 5 minute phone-break. Just be sure to set a timer so you don’t become distracted on your phone and 5 minutes becomes an hour. If you feel the need to listen to music, choose wisely! Classical music playing softly in the background may be a good option. White noise might be an even better alternative. 3) Be an active learner. The brain works best when it is being given multiple modalities by which to learn and encode information. Instead of passively reading a textbook, try taking notes on important topics. Draw diagrams to help you learn or use mnemonics as a memorization trick. Another helpful tip to maximize your studying time is to write your own questions on the topics you are learning – this helps you think about the topics on a deeper level.

Subject: Psychology

TutorMe
Question:

Please list 3 historical figures in the field of psychology and why their contributions were important for the development of the field.

Inactive
Elle W.
Answer:

1) Hippocrates: Hippocrates, a Greek physician, is known as the Father of Medicine. However, his contributions were important to the field of psychology as well. Hippocrates was the first individual to state that the brain is the center of intellect, as the brain controlled the senses and our movement. He was also influential for the field of psychology, as he rejected the popular idea at the time that seizures were caused by the gods, and instead he believed they were caused by too much phlegm in the brain. His phlegm theory has since been proven false, but it was a step in the right direction in that he began to consider brain-based disorders from a biological perspective. 2) Galen: Galen was a gladiator surgeon, but he was much more than that and very influential in the field. Galen was not only the founder of the field of experimental physiology, but he was also the first to posit that the brain is the seat of highest intellect (imagination, cognition, and memory), and he based his theory on his observations of head trauma in gladiators post-battle. Galen also wrote “On The Brain,” in which he discussed dissection, numbered the cranial nerves, and distinguished between sensory and motor pathways (all topics still widely discussed today). 3) Donald Hebb: Donald Hebb is influential in psychology for his theory on the organization of behavior. He postulated that the only way to explain behavior is through brain function, and that all behavior we observe is secondary to how our brain is or is not functioning. He further explained his theory, by stating that when we engage in certain behaviors, the strength between those neural networks increases and that is how behaviors can become automatized. Hebb laid the foundation for many of our neuropsychological theories used today.

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