Tutor profile: Ine S.
Subject: Biomedical Science
After a neck injury, a patient experiences drooping of his upper eyelid, absence of sweating of his face, and a constricted pupil. The patient is diagnosed with Horner’s Syndrome. What nerve in the root of the neck was most likely severed? a. Ansa cervicalis b. Phrenic nerve c. Vagus nerve d. Sympathetic chain
The correct answer is d, sympathetic chain. Damage to the sympathetic chain would interrupt sympathetic nerve supply to the face and neck. Ansa cervicalis is part of the cervical plexus, which innervates infrahyoid muscles. The phrenic nerve innervates the diaphragm to assist breathing, while the vagus nerve sends parasympathetic innervation to abdominal organs.
Subject: Dentistry and Pre-Dentistry
After a traumatic injury to the vagus nerve (CN X), an 18-year-old male experiences palatal paralysis, but there is one muscle of the soft palate that is still functioning. Which of the following functions will this muscle still be able to perform? A. Elevate the uvula B. Elevate the root of the tongue C. Elevate the soft palate D. Tense and flatten out the soft palate E. Elevate the pharynx
The correct answer is D, tense and flatten out the soft palate, which is performed by the tensor veli palatini. The tensor veli palatini is innervated by the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve (CNV3) unlike other muscles of the palate that are innervated by the vagus nerve, so its function will still be intact. All other muscles of the soft palate that are innervated by the pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve will experience loss of function.
One of the terminal branches of the external carotid artery traveling through the infratemporal fossa is occluded. Supply to which part of the face is compromised? A. Lower eyelid B. Nose area C. Upper lip D. Scalp and forehead E. Cheeks
The correct answer is A, lower eyelid, which is supplied by the infraorbital artery. The infraorbital artery is a branch of the maxillary artery, which is one of the terminal branches of the external carotid artery and travels through the infratemporal fossa. The nose area is supplied by the angular artery, which is a terminal branch of the facial artery. The upper lip is supplied by the superior labial artery, which branches off of the facial artery. The scalp and forehead are supplied by the superficial temporal artery, which is one of the other terminal branches of the external carotid artery but does not pass through the infratemporal fossa; rather, it runs superficial to the zygomatic process of the temporal bone. The cheeks are supplied by the transverse facial artery, which is a branch of the superficial temporal artery.
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