Tutor profile: Alex H.
Describe and differentiate positive and negative reinforcements and positive and negative punishments, with their respective outcomes.
Positive reinforcements are used to increase a behaviour by giving a reward (adding a positive stimulus) ex: TV time for finishing homework. Negative reinforcements are used to increase a behaviour by removing a negative stimulus ex. don't have to do dishes if use proper table manners at dinner. Positive punishments are used to decrease a behaviour by adding a negative stimulus ex. have to do dishes if have poor table manners. Negative punishments are used to decrease a behaviour by removing a positive stimulus ex. if the homework doesn't get finished, there will be a loss of TV privileges.
What is the central dogma of molecular biology?
The central dogma of molecular biology is how genetic information in a cell become expressed. The DNA holds the genetic information inside the nucleus, this may be replicated for cell division by DNA polymerase. DNA is transcribed into RNA in the nucleus by RNA polymerases, and modified to become an mRNA molecule. The mRNA is then transported into the cytoplasm where the mRNA codon can be translated by the ribosomes to construct a protein product.
What is the difference between "thick" skin and "thin" skin? Name the layers found in each type from most superficial to the deepest layer.
Thick skin has 5 layers of epithelial cells and contains the stratum lucidum layer, while thin skin only has 4 layers of epithelial cells (lacking the stratum lucidum layer). Thick skin is found only on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, while thin skin is found over the rest of the body. The layers of thick skin (from most superficial to deep) are stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale. The layers of thin skin (also from most superficial to deep) are as follows: stratum corneum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale.
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