Tutor profile: Tapas M.
define and elaborate 4 noble truths of buddhism .
The basic thought of the Buddha: The four Noble Truths: The method for the four Noble Truths is perhaps based on the formula for a medical diagnosis. That is, it states the illness, the source of the illness, then the cure for the illness, and finally the way to bring about that cure. It can be said that The Buddha's first sermon after his Enlightenment focused on the Four Noble Truths, which are the basis of Buddhism. The truths are: The truth of suffering (dukkha) The truth of the cause of suffering (samudaya) The truth of the end of suffering (nirhodha) The truth of the path that frees us from suffering (magga) 1. The Truth of Suffering: The First Noble Truth often is interpreted as "Life is suffering." It is observed that many people do not have idea about Buddhism dogma as soon as they hear this. But the Pali word dukkha also denotes to anything that is temporary, conditional, or compounded of other things. Even something valuable and pleasing is dukkha, because it will end. Related to the nature of life is the nature of self. People want more and more from life and that is the core of the problem, egocentric desire. This is Buddha's diagnosis (Simpkins & Simpkins, 2000). People can understand that life is impermanent but are they, also, impermanent? The Buddha communicated that before people can understand life and death, they must understand the self. 2. The Truth of the Cause of Suffering: The Second Noble Truth in Buddha's teaching is Cause of Suffering. The cause of suffering is craving or thirst (tanha). People continually search for something outside ourselves to make them happy. But no matter how successful they are, they never remain satisfied. The Buddha taught that this thirst cultivates from ignorance of the self. People go through life grabbing one thing after another to get a sense of security about ourselves. They attach not only to physical things, but also to ideas and opinions about themselves and the world around them. Anger is one of the main causes for distress to others; it also will cause suffering within. People constantly engage in actions that cause anguish, either directly or indirectly (Simpkins & Simpkins, 2000). Then they become frustrated when the world does not behave the way they want and their lives do not conform to their expectations. The Buddha's teachings on karma and rebirth are narrowly related to the Second Noble Truth. 3. The Truth of the End of Suffering: The Buddha's teachings on the Four Noble Truths are compared to a physician identifying an illness and prescribing a treatment. The first truth tells what the illness is, and the second truth tells what causes the illness. The Third Noble Truth holds out hope for a cure. The Buddha taught that through hardworking practice, people can put an end to craving. Ending the hamster-wheel chase after satisfaction is enlightenment (bodhi, "awakened"). The enlightened being exists in a state called Nirvana. 4. The truth of the path that frees us from suffering: In the Fourth Noble Truth, the Buddha as physician recommends the treatment for our illness. The Eightfold Path. Dissimilar in many other religions, in Buddhism, there is no particular benefit to just believing in a dogma. Instead, the emphasis is on living the doctrine and walking the path.
Subject: International Studies
Where does the theory of Mercantilism fit into International relations?
The theory of Mercantilism includes a national economic policy that aims at maintaining the monetary reserves along with a positive balance of trade. According to some mercantilists, the increasing population would outgrow its resources and the need to develop bigger markets and armies may arise. The theory of Mercantilism fits into international relations on the basis of the principles mentioned below. Mercantilists thought that the amount of wealth in the world would remain unchanged. They believed that a country's wealth just includes the amount of precious metal or bullions it has. Encouraging exports over imports so as to get a favorable balance in foreign trade. A large population of a country would be the key to autonomy and state power. They had a belief that the state should play a dominant role in assisting and directing the national and international economies to these ends.
If $x^3 + y^3 = 9$ and $x + y = 3$ then the value of $x^4 + y^4$ is,
Whenever you meet x3+y3=9 and x+y=3 together straightway go for the expression x3+y3=(x+y)×(x2−xy+y2) which results in, 9 = 3×((x+y)2−3xy) = 3×(9−3xy) = 27−9xy or, xy=2. Now easiest way to get x4+y4 is to multiply the first two given expressions together, giving, x4+y4+xy(x2+y2)=27. So, x4+y4 = 27−2×((x+y)2−2xy) = 27−2×(9−4) = 17 Key concepts used: Use of x3+y3=9x3+y3=9 and x+y=3x+y=3 together to get value of xyxy -- get target value by direct multiplication of given two expressions and using value of xyxy.
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