Construct an essay outline for a scientific article critique.
Introduction -opening statement -importance of project -thesis (arguments n(x)) Body n(1) - topic sentence - key argument - transition sentence Body n(2) Body n(3) Conclusion -restate thesis -state accomplishment of critique - review application of theory, methods, etc to other areas of inquiry
In Plato's Republic, what are the four major constitutions reviewed and why are each problematic? How do these shortcomings lay the groundwork for republican governance?
Plato reviews timocracy, oligarchy, tyranny, and democracy. Timocracy serves the pursuit of honor rather than wisdom and is easily corruptible. Oligarchy, born from intuitions to put educated stakeholders in power, is equivalent to the rule of the wealthy, which can propel economic inequality. Under these conditions, the poor can demand more power to constrain leaders, resulting in democratization. However, democracy at its most extreme leads to anarchy or the absence of the state. This social system or lack thereof is critically vulnerable to tyranny, where rulers take total power since other institutions lack faith by the public. Since all are flawed in their own way, republican governance, blended between autocratic, democratic, and aristocratic rule is theorized an an ideal form of political life.
What is the difference between legitimacy and sovereignty and why are these hard concepts to study?
Sovereignty is the ultimate authority of a state to rule without question. Sovereign states monopolize violence. Legitimacy represents the belief of the governed and third parties that a given state was constructed in a manner that grants it the right to rule as it sees fit. These are hard concepts because of operationalization or the `measurement of concepts` that capture similar phenomena.