Compare and contrast the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan. How did the Great Compromise resolve the disagreements between the two plans?
The Virginia plan proposed a bicameral legislature both being represented by the population of the state. This was favored by larger states and opposed by smaller states. This plan consisted of three branches of government: the legislative, executive, and judicial. The legislative branch would be more powerful and have the authority to choose people to serve in the executive and judicial branches. Under the Virginia Plan the legislature could regulate interstate trade, strike down laws deemed unconstitutional, and use armed forces to enforce laws. The New Jersey Plan was created in response to the Virginia Plan’s call for two parties in the legislative branch of the government. As opposed to the Virginia Plan, the New Jersey Plan called for a unicameral legislature. Similar to the Virginia Plan the New Jersey Plan suggested three branches, the legislative, executive, and judicial. The legislature appoints people to serve in the executive branch, and the executive branch selects the justices of the Supreme Court. The national government could levy taxes and import duties, regulate trade, and state laws would be inferior to laws passed by the national legislature. The Virginia Plan focused on state power where the New Jersey Plan was centralized around national power. The Great Compromise took aspects from each plan. The Great Compromise called for a three branch government: executive, legislative, and judicial. The Great Compromise declared a bicameral legislature: The House of Representatives which was based off of population, to satisfy the Virginia Plan and the Senate which gave each state two Senators which satisfied the New Jersey Plan.
What is Pluralist Politics and why did it become favorable following World War II?
The rise of Nazism in Germany had proved that mass participation did not always mean increased democracy. After World War II, political theorists observed that when masses of citizens involve themselves in the political process they tended to act on vague, irrational principles and emotions rather than knowledgeable, coherent ideas. In this setting, postwar liberals advocated towards pluralist politics, a view of American democracy as a process of bargaining among groups. Pluralists believed that the interaction of groups and the continuous building and rearranging of coalitions on different issues protected representative democracy. Furthermore pluralism encouraged government action to come to an agreement. Standing on principle and empathetically voicing a particular belief made compromise impossible and created division. Opposing this, negotiating collectively focused on resolving problems and on policy rather than principle, which was the core of pluralist politics.
This year is the 100th anniversary of the United States intervention of World War I. List and explain the five reasons that led the United States to join World War I in 1917.
1. German Violence in Belgium- When Germany entered the neutral country of Belgium and began killing and attacking innocent Belgian citizens, the news made its way to the United States. As the terrors happening in Belgium circulated through the U.S. press, it began to increase the anti-Germany sentiment amongst the country. 2. Economic Interests- American businessmen were interested in the victory of the Allied Forces. Many men, such as JP Morgan, provided Britain and France with more than $3 billion in loans. If the Central Powers were to win the war then there was a good chance that these countries would not be able to repay the United States investors. So these businessmen began supporting what was known as the “Preparedness Movement” which rallied for U.S. intervention on the Allied Forces side. 3. The sinking of the Lusitania- In 1915 a German U-boat sunk a British passenger ship called the Lusitania off of the coast of Ireland. 1,000 passengers were killed including 128 Americans. This atrocity added to the unsettling feelings against Germany. 4. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare- Less than a year after the sinking of the Lusitania, Germany began using unrestricted submarine warfare in retaliation to the British Blockade in order to keep goods from reaching Britain. Although Germany had promised to stop unrestricted submarine warfare, Germany proceeded to sink another passenger ship, the Sussex leading to the “Sussex Pledge.” Under this pledge, Germany promised yet again to stop attacking passenger boats, but soon this pledge too was broken. 5. Zimmerman Telegram- In 1917 German Foreign Minister sent a telegram to Mexico suggesting if the U.S. were to declare war on Germany then Mexico should declare war on the U.S. and in return Germany would get back the territory that Mexico had lost during the Mexican-American War. The telegram was intercepted by Britain and given to the United States. Ultimately after this telegram was made public it led to the United States mobilizing against the Central Powers.