Tutor profile: Priyanka G.
Subject: World Geography
In today's time where resource exploitation has reached its limit and over exploitative nature of some few individuals have taken our beautiful Earth to the verge of destruction. and hence sustainable development is a roadmap to make sure the sustainability of our future generation is maintained without damaging the integrity and beauty of our nature. Therefore I chose this topic to shed some light on the importance of sustainable development. Q. Does the concept of sustainable development lies in the ability to integrate different policies and economic goals while keeping in mind the social and environmental dimensions?
Ans. INTRODUCTION The idea of sustainable development in today's time has been the need of hour. the concept of sustainable development has been discussed since the mid 1980s. Sustainability becomes crucial in not just fulfilling our needs but also prepare a desirable future for our coming generations without damaging our environment and natural resources. it is true that there is enough to satisfy our needs but not enough to satisfy our greed and therefore the need to carefully balance the environment and endorse the economic growth is crucial. MAIN ELEMENTS OF ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT sustainable development cannot be achieved by just one aspect of conservation rather it is a combination of different elements such as environmental protection along with economic efficiency and ecological potential to survive / thrive over time. these all are possible only by human interference to preserve our natural habitat to reduce exploitation and to provide with the sustainable development project various policies and participation of communities. CHALLENGES TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT > the challenges faced by sustainable development programs include > climate change and global warming overconsumption of energy > food wastage > increasing poverty in third world countries and gap between rich and poor and social exclusion of poor people > trade barriers and trade policies OBJECTIVES OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT sustainable development AIMS at creating a quality life for all the people and for future generations without damaging our environment. the principal goals of development policies should include - 1 . accelerating economic growth through mutual efforts of developed and developing countries. 2 . to meet the basic needs and requirements 3 . to ensure clean and safe environment 4 . promote human resource development by providing health and education 5 . ensure sustainable consumption and production (reduce wastage of food and ensure food security) 6. conserve and carefully utilize natural resources and marine life 7 . to protect and restore terrestrial ecosystem through afforestation programs and biodiversity conservation programs 8 . promote non - conventional resources to reduce pollution 9 . make laws on strict control on gross exploitation of these natural resources by countries 10 . and finally promote peace, effective , accountable and inclusive institutions at all level by strengthening global partnership and narrowing the gap between rich and poor. DIMENSIONS OF SUSTAINABILITY the concept of sustainability is a joint effort to protect environment and also to maintain the level of development through economic growth. in order to achieve complete sustainability of the key focus should be on societal and economical development while considering environmental issues. The social, economical and environmental pillars are crucial in sustainable development. The balance of these three elements make our lives durable, favourable and viable. and the ultimate goal of sustainable development is to create a coherent and long-lasting balance between these three. HOW CAN WE ACHIEVE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (POLICIES AND PLANNING) Through the joint efforts of countries and communities by implementing various policies and summits we can promote sustainable development. some policies and programs which aim at combating climate change and global crisis are- 1) UNDP and UNEP which promote sustainable development at global level. regular summits are conducted to publicly involved in environmental engagement. numerous declaration, action plans, specific conventions and laws are been drafted. 2) THE RIO EARTH SUMMIT in 1989 conducted by the UN GENERAL ASSEMBLY known as the Earth Summit called a UN conference on environment and development stimulating sustainable development where 172 States participated. The focus of this summit was to link environment and development. And to the issues surrounding the promotion and achievement of sustainable development. To tackle these issues policies were introduced that aimed at balancing environmental protection with social and economic concerns especially in the third world countries. 3) WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (WSSD) was held at Johannesburg in 2002 focused on improving people's life for standard of living and conserving natural resources -to deal with increasing population and growing demands for food , water ,sanitation, shelter , health services and social and economic security. 4) SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS (SDGs) aims at addressing multiple goals at the same time like climate change, food security and poverty etc. 5) GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS AT STATE LEVELS such as country's effort in creating a sustainable environment through various policies and plans in promoting, preserving and conserving local resources. CONCLUSION While the idea of sustainable development cannot be achieved by excluding any of the socio, economic and environmental aspects and also by not disturbing the ecological balance between the three. The aim of sustainable development is a joint effort of global agreement and cooperation which shall be dealt with patience and that to sooner. I can conclude by discussion by saying that sustainable development is a civilizing idea which have great scope of improvement for a safer planet and future.
Subject: US History
Since in today's time we are witnessing a lot of crime happening against women. And their struggle against the patriarchal order in achieving their political, social and economic rights is of a long historical process. I would like to throw light on this topic through the perspective of Afro-American and slave women during the 19th century America. Q. What was the "cult of womanhood" as defined by the Afro-American women. Was it a challenge to the 19th century racist regime and how did they struggle in achieving their civil rights?
Ans. INTRODUCTION Women since long time have been subjected to male subjugation and oppression and are idea of an ideal woman lied in her profound connection with domesticity, piety,purity and submissiveness(her passivity) and often were subjected to judgement on the basis of these values. 'Purity' was seen as her greatest virtue and that she must protect her virginity before marriage and not to resist her husband's sexual demands. they were expected to be repulsed by sexual contact and those who rebelled were viewed as fallen women. First described by Barbara Welter and many other historians, the 'cult of womanhood' gives the idea of the gender ideology that describe a woman's nature and her womanly attributes as the moral protector of her home. what I have found out through old archives and readings about the stereotypical notions is that society categorised black women and poor women particularly slave women as sub-standard women and saw them as someone who did not meet the gender standards. 19th century American categorised women as domestic and and un-domestic and the fact that domesticity in women was designed by nature of God and and domestic women were unnatural and disrespective towards God. RECONSTRUCTING THE IDEA OF WOMANHOOD BY AFRO- AMERICAN WOMEN Definitely the preconceived notion of womanhood to define white women were challenged by a series of african-american women novelist. Since the period between 1861 and the late 19th century was a period of a dramatic change in the history of America, particularly regarding the women's right and their sovereignty. this challenging era forced afro-american women to rethink what is meant to be a true women as described by earlier gender ideologies. These women often wrote diaries, journals that not only would become a place to express their personal feelings in the face of racial violence , discrimination , sexual assault but also their political ideas and demands for civil rights. many black women began to raise their opinions and voiced for women suffrage. The abolitionist and Female Suffrage Movement were closely intertwined and several black women abolitionist such as Sojourner Truth and Harriet Tubman were defenders of women's right. DUAL WOMANHOOD - A challenge to the 19th century racist regime Towards the end of 19th century coma Elite afro American woman developed the idea of dual womanhood. they would now maintain the dual concept of piety and purity as well as become working class women. the conservative Victorian Era definition of black women who went through a great transformation between the decades of 1865 and 1920. many of them rejected the attitudes of submissiveness passivity and displayed their intelligence and often did not hesitate to challenge their husbands. HOW DID THEY RESHAPED THESE NORMS FOR FUTURE? many black American women leaders such as Mary Church Terrell , faninie barrier and Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin continued to fight against such situation by defending the image of a black women. they urged to these women of colour to expunge all negative sexual images of themselves to fight this racist stereotype. EDUCATION the young upper class black women were raised with duty to promote race upliftment. they were prepared for activism, leadership roles for professional positions , to become nurse, teachers,educated mothers or journalists . education was seen crucial, schools were founded by the missionaries during Reconstruction. but the pressure of Victorian ideas were also imposed upon them. the black and white women's higher education experience also differs because white women mostly attended single - sex institutions, where as Black women attended historically black colleges and universities and found education as a way to obtain a position as an educator and to promote racial upliftment. black men also supported female education and many of them saw women's role not only at race upliftment but also to re- enfranchise african-americans. EMANCIPATION OF 1865 it was only after 1865 , black women could finally express their idea of womanhood in a context of legal frame freedom. During the era of Reconstruction these women of colour struggle to find their position and it was only after emancipation that they were granted some legal freedom. BLACK WOMEN'S VIEWS ON MARRIAGE AND FAMILY many black women particularly former slave women had ambivalent feelings toward the idea of marriage because of the past experiences under bondage. For other educated free black women marriage could be an obstacle to their intended career. however such outspoken ideas of avoiding or postponing marriages and living freely express by these women were often criticized by both black and white men. CONCLUSION the struggle afro -american women did in achieving self-reliance and independence along with political and economic rights was a process of long struggle. the struggle to counteract the institutional racism and sexism of their time,they chose education and self dependency as a powerful tool that they continued displaying even after the emancipation of 1865. these black women developed strategies of self empowerment and race upliftment through community work and movements which inspired women of all race and ethnicity in future.
Subject: European History
Q. Do you think revolutions of 1848 were an outcome of the conjunctions of an economic and political crisis in the mid 19th century Europe which paved the way for modern democracy ?
Ans. The period of 1848 saw of a wave of revolution which shook the political system and wrecked the social order of its Foundation. the revolution of 1848 are very significant as they were the longest , most widespread and violent political movement that ever happened in 19th century Europe. The revolution originated from France and reached German Confederation and the Austrian empire in two South Eastern Europe and Italy with the aim of establishing a constitutional Democratic Republic with equality before law and end to birth based privileges. the desire for creating a nation state arose in the Italy Germany and the parts of Austrian empire and the process of national unification took place. SOCIAL TENSIONS AND POLITICAL CAUSES the first half of the nineteenth century saw the emergence of a number of middle classed such as lawyers Businessman traders Court officials who felt alienated from the existing political order and reacted against the monopolization of power by the nobility and the propertied class . > these members of the educated bourgeoisie demanded a greater role in the decision-making process through a Parliamentary form of Government along with a guarantee of individual freedom and the rule of law. > also the economically frustrated middle class demanded for the job opportunities an often lead to mobilization strikes and demonstration of the working class > The idea of democratic and socialist ideology gained popularity among the middle working class who were inspired by the philosophers such as Rousseau , Montesquieu and Locke etc. ECONOMIC CRISIS Many Scholars have argued that the economic crisis of the Year 1845- 47 were combined feature of a pre -industrial subsistence crisis along with growing population which resulted in shortage of food due to bad harvest and crop failure that created a condition of near starvation. > due to which there was a rise in food prices in most of the European countries which led to strikes demonstration and even food riots. > unemployment rose in urban and rural areas as the industries declined and factories collapsed which created an acute credit crisis and huge debts on poor people. > demographic pressure on the existing resources of agriculture, the decline of rural industry and the competitive nature of early industrialisation created a widespread misery for the poor classes. HISTORIAN'S INTERPRETATION Many of the historians have agreed that the revolution of 1848 where the culmination of a series of economic social and political crisis which led to the outbreak of revolution in Europe that paved a way for a modern democratic form of a government disregarding the old monarchical values and beliefs. Jonathan Sperber describe the revolution as the ‘romantic revolution’ in which the ideas of of romanticism through folk art, folk music, folklores, patriotic songs were carried forward by the people. But he also talks about the failure of the revolution which established the old regime again by the powerful force of counter-revolution. it was seen that after a short period of time the authorities who were overthrown in the beginning had regained their power. similarly according to Eric Hobsbawn the revolutionaries were initially successful in sweeping away the existing governments but soon lost initiative which led to the the returning back of the old order. in his book ‘The Age of Capital’ Hobsbawn refers to the events of 1848 as the ‘springtime of the peoples’. for him the revolution was the creation of workers, labouring poor and the petty bourgeoisie. FAILURE OF THE REVOLUTION AND COUNTER REVOLUTION According to my thinking the revolution failed because they lacked the enthusiasm displayed by their Jacobin predecessors and Bolshevik successors and also the fact that revolutionaries were not revolutionary enough. Many Revolutionary leaders failed to bring in the revolution together and were not daring enough to carry out the required actions as they claimed. according to the Marxists the revolutionaries of 1848 were not successful in mobilising popular support of the middle class in comparison to the powerful and loyal military support that the monarchy got. the revolutionaries rendered a week tactical leadership and the counter revolution became successful in suppressing the revolution. > also one of the main reasons for the failure was a split between liberals and radicals. > the counter revolutions which were carried out by the the supporters of monarchy like nobles and clergy left no scope of power with the parliaments and assemblies. > some of the proposed demands of Universal Male suffrage , freedom of press ,constitutional governments and larger participation of the public in the administrative affairs were fulfilled but most of these concessions were withdrawn sooner or later. CONCLUSION All though the revolution of 1848 failed but this revolutions inaugurated the trend of mass politics and stimulated the political Awareness of the general masses and carried forward the ideas of freedom equality and universal adult franchise. > this period also witnessed the formation of different political groups such as the moderates radicals and the conservatives > the revolution also marked for the first time the demand put forward for industrial and labour reforms > the revolution created for the first time the sense of nationalism and the creation of nation state. > The most important significant Legacy of the revolution was the the end of old regime, the abolition of serfdom and feudal system and freed the peasants from their obligation towards the lords For me the revolution of 1848 transformed Europe at becoming the world power in the coming centuries as they were the first one to bring modernization , industrialization and also the idea of Renaissance which inspired the revolutionaries became inspiring for other Nations and civilizations.
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