Describe the perfect research paper.
Thesis: This should be the road map to your entire paper. Here, you should lay out your main argument, and the examples you will be using to back it up. Body paragraphs: Each should include discussions of other scholarly works pertaining to your topic, and examples to demonstrate your main points. You should engage in critical thinking, rather than just communicating what other scholars have to say. Each paragraph should have a smooth transition to the next one. Conclusion: This should tie up your paper. There should be no new information, unless you are talking about ideas for future research based on the evidence presented. Citation style must remain consistent.
In what ways does Petronius' Cena Trimalchionis reflect contemporary elite biases against "upstarts", especially the freedman class? How does it compare to other literature of the time?
Petronius' Satyricon: Dinner with Trimalchio • If the Satyricon is supposed to be a mock-epic, as suggested by previous scholars according to William Arrowsmith, then where would Trimalchio fit in? (think about people that Aeneas and Odysseus have met in their stories…) • Neronian context - last emperor before Vespasian, when the Vettius bros would have gained prestige (seem to be at the height of their prestige when Vesuvius erupted) • Mobility of Roman society - Trimalchio as an ex-slave hosting a dinner party • Think about elites who would be reading this - bias from upper class against freedman class ○ What kind of biases may the Vettius brothers have encountered? • Trimalchio overdoing it with the biographical frieze - can this be compared to Nasidienus? ○ How realistic would this have been? How does it compare to what we see in the house of the Vettius brothers? • Overdoing his self-presentation as well as the presentation of his prestige and how he earned it • Because this is a satirical novel, and it is easy to picture Romans roaring with laughter when Trimalchio enters his dining room being carried in with fancy pillows, to an extent it shouldn't be taken too seriously. However, we have to consider that Petronius was very elite, being a part of the emperor's inner circle and he was trying to impress an elite crowd by making this social class the object of his comedy. ○ Does he make mention of his patron at all? If Trimalchio is old, it could be that his patron is dead ○ Trimalchio has all kinds of slaves and makes mention of a 'dependent' (I'm assuming this is his client) § His client was even able to get him a nice gift - shows that he was able to help someone below him - and the person below him is even pretty well-off § There seems to be more of a focus on him as a patron rather than a client • One underlying message could be that if one is not born free and into wealth, one does not know how to handle it and overdoes it as a result ○ Even though a freedperson could acquire considerable wealth and influence, but would still face bias from those who were ingenuus and were well-off for that reason. ○ Although the Vettius brothers were most likely not over the top (based on the remaining evidence of their house and like Trimalchio was, they may have faced stereotypes because of their servile ingeinium from freeborn elite • It is important to consider the character of Encolpius, whose lens we see this story from • The part where Encolpius goes into Trimalchio's atrium and talks about the golden jar with Trimalchio's beard is really funny - it's showing that the guy is full of himself and is keeping an important object near a statue of a goddess - no statue or painting of the paterfamilias, which to Trimalchio would have been his ex-master Contrast w/the Vettii: the togate figure in the lararium is probably their patron Horace's Satire II-8: Nasidienus has some Friends in for Dinner • Augustan context • We have a taste of how competitive Roman society is • Social role of dinner parties, perhaps the pressure of competitiveness causes Nasidienus to over-do it • In an elite context - not the very top, but elite, nevertheless • Keep in mind that Horace himself is the son of a freedman, so he has firsthand experience of the social mobility in this society; what he learned from his father & how it affects the way he writes about his characters • If he experienced firsthand/personally the controversy that could surround a freedman (i.e. jeering from someone who has lived in luxury their whole life) • II-2 • In addition to our class discussion, I think the hardworking farmer Ofellus in a way represents his father, who was once a slave who earned his freedom; a man who knows the value of hardwork and can find rewards in life/live happily without extravagance • "I Am Only a Freedman's Son" Compare/Contrast of Trimalchio and Nasidienus • Petronius' character Trimalchio is a freedman who had accumulated wealth over the years; Horace is a freedman but is writing about a person who was presumably freeborn • Both characters are overdoing it with self-presentation and their dinner parties
Compare the most important factors in Rome's rise to domination over Italy in the Early Republic with those factors that expanded Roman control over the Iberian Peninsula, N. Africa, and the Greek world. Starting with the premise that Rome's success in the Punic and Macedonian Wars built on earlier practices, what were the 3 key factors that may be seen in Rome's expansion?
a. Expansion in Italy occurred during a century long struggle that at first began by self-defense against external threats b. Wars, shared citizenship, treaties c. As poorer classes of farmers/plebeians were recruited into the military & won voting rights, thus, gained experience in the military as well as politics i. Could be seen as helpful to expansion because they had more people to fight in wars -->stronger forces d. Extension of citizenship to the Latin and Campanian communities i. Also contributed to an increase of military power ii. "The Roman city-state developed ways of incorporating foreign communities within its territory without admitting them to citizenship & used colonization & alliances with the aim & result of multiplying its own military strength with the help of theirs." e. Annexation, colonization, & treaty alliances were important to developing political leadership in Rome that would help expansion f. The Latin League/successful relations/alliances with the Latins i. Rome increased its citizen territory & settlement area in the Pomptine plain and the Etruscan city of Caere became a part of Roman territory as well ii. Conquered territories self governed iii. Treaty in the 4th C BCE between the Latins & Romans shows that they wanted peace between one another, help one another during war & have equal share in war spoils when they work together 1) Formally entered an alliance of equals w/the League but also superior 2) Successful because the Latins did provide forces for Romans in future wars iv. Samnite War #1: mid 4th century they were drawn in by allies in Campania and it ended up going under Roman control, conflict w/Latin League, but Latin League ended up being assumed into Roman dominion 1) After the 2nd Samnite War there were military reforms and roads ended up being built - which paved the way for Roman expansion! 2) Military reforms in the 4th C BCE a) The phalanx developed and advanced so they could fight better in mountains and this would also be beneficial in later wars. Their units were called maniples and were divided into 3 sections. b) Short sword was primary weapon along w/scutum & pilum c) Legionnaires d) The principes (those who were in the front) could move to the sides, more flexibility, which came in handy during the Macedonian Wars later on; worked better on plains & mountains v. War with Tarentum in Southern Italy; Greek colony g. Volscian towns also captured and became Roman; colonies founded to control coastline h. Expansion after success in Punic & Macedonian Wars i. Military reforms, more success in wars & more conquered people -> population growth; allowed them to continue building roads (military exploits = cause for road system and there ended up being trade benefits) j. 1st Punic War - Rome built their first advanced naval fleet - the quinquereme - basically reverse engineered a beached Carthaginian ship and used It as a model - also developed the corvus, which locked onto enemy ships i. Although Rome suffered some defeats, Carthage ended up abandoning Sicily ii. An important factor for success in the first as well as the other two Punic Wars was that Rome sent politicians overseas as well - more praetors were sent to Sicily and Sardinia to guard Rome's position and maintain/assert Roman interests (significant because it marked the beginning of regular praetorian assignments away from Rome) k. 2nd Punic War - after learning about the revival of Carthaginian power in Spain, the Roman Senate sent ambassadors in the early 3rd century BCE to make an agreement not to cross the Ebro i. Romans also at an earlier time had a sort of alliance with Saguntum (town south of the Ebro) - they were under Roman protection (as a client) ii. Saguntines attacked a community under Carth. Protection, Senators warned Hannibal against attacking them but he did anyway and then another war occurred iii. Romans suffered defeats at the hands of Hannibal but eventually prevailed l. They become wealthy from mineral & agricultural resources, which were obtained as they expanded m. They came to expand over the Greek world after getting involved in wars because of treaties with people like the Aetolian League during the Macedonian Wars - thought of their allies like clients, Rome = patron i. Rome had friendships and dependencies in Illyria & Epirus after the 2 Illyrian Wars (part of the reason why they got pulled into the first Mac. War) n. Greece becomes part of Rome after the 4th Macedonian War, especially after the sack of Corinth