What is deontology and utilitarianism? Who is the central person of both? How do they differ?
Deontology is a political philosophical solution based on reason for action by Immanuel Kant. Kant, in Metaphysics of Morals, considers a categorical imperative which states that one should imagine if everyone on earth did what they are about to do. If that world is good then they should do it, if not then don't. For example, if one is about to not do their homework, then they should not do it, because then everyone would live in an ignorant society. This is one's duty to act this way. Government, thus, should also act accordingly. Utilitarianism is based on the pursuance of pleasure and avoidance of pain for the community. This is considered by John Stuart Mill. Mill says that one should do what ever brings the most pleasure to oneself and the community while avoiding the most pain. Thus, for example, if a person was happy when they stole another persons car, the thief would be happy and the victim would not be. This means that it is bad for the community. However, if a thief steals a car and someone stops him, that would be an act with a positive utility because now the potential victim, the one who stopped the perpetrator, and the community would all be happy even though the thief is in pain while in jail.
Compare and contrast the two halves of North America's Manufacturing Core and explain the key attribute for it's development.
North America's Manufacturing Core covers a region across the northeastern quarter of the United States from Chicago to Boston, and includes much of industrialized Southern Ontario and Quebec in Canada. The half east of the Appalachian ranges was settled much earlier, and is dominated by making light industrial products. These products include furniture and other items that could be made by circa 1800's technology easily. In the Great Lakes region, west of the Appalachian ranges, heavy industry remains the norm. These industries include automobiles that require heavy machinery and technologically advanced equipment to build efficiently. However, the core was extremely benefited by its situation around valuable resources. It had easy accessibility to transportation by the Atlantic Ocean and St. Lawrence Seaway System (including the Great Lakes). The fall line provided easy hydro-power for early eastern factories in Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York. The convergence of coal from the Appalachians, timber from the Upper Midwest, and mineral resources from the southern Canadian Shield provided easy industry in the major cities of the west likewise in Detroit, Chicago, and Cleveland.
What is the similarities and differences between the United States and the European Union?
First, both unions are federalist in their general structure with a similar power distribution between the sub-units and the union as a whole. However, both are substantially dissimilar. For one, the European Union is not a single state, and thus, in many regards also acts as a confederacy. For example, the EU does not have a single standing military force like the United States. However, the EU, at least within the Eurozone, as a decentralized federal economic system with one currency headed by the European Central Bank that is decentralized by individual central banks in each country. Another major difference from a more political perspective is that the EU is substantially more progressive, and controlling of its member states. For example, the EU has authority to change the laws of nations and/or demand particular changes within the state before membership can be obtained. For a most simple example, the death penalty is abolished in the EU, and each member state before joining must also abolish it. However, the federal government in the US is not able to force states to make that decision, but must rather change the constitution.