Tutor profile: Moizza A.
What are the colligative properties of a solution?
The colligative properties of a solution depend on the ratio between the total number of solute particles and the total number of solvent particles in a solution. Colligative properties can be linked to the molarity, morality and normality of a solution. The four main colligative properties that are shown by a solution are: > elevation in billing point > depression in freezing point > relative lowering of the vapor pressure > osmotic pressure Colligative properties are shown by dilute solutions that contain non-volatile solutes. For example, if we add a small amount of salt to a beaker of distilled water, the solution's freezing point gets lowered. The boiling point of the same solution gets increased and vapor pressure gets lowered. Changes in the osmotic pressure can also be observed.
How do proteins separate from a mixture in SDS and native PAGE?
SDS PAGE separates proteins from a mixture on the basis of their mass while native PAGE separates proteins on the basis of their mass to charge ratio. This is because in SDS PAGE, sodium dodecyl sulfate being an anionic detergent denatures the proteins and renders an overall uniform charge. This way, size (or mass) remains the only factor by which proteins may be separated. On the other hand, native PAGE uses proteins in their original form and it does not employ any detergents. So their charge is maintained as well. This way, it separates the proteins based on their mass to charge ratio.
What is the role of the immune system in an organism?
The immune system of an organism consists of a complex network of proteins and cells that defend the body against diseases. Important components of the immune system include antibodies, white blood cells, complement system, lymphatic system, spleen, thymus and bone marrow. Whenever a disease-causing agent (a pathogen) enters the body, the immune system becomes activated. Antibodies are produced that fight against the pathogen and kill it. The immune system also has the function of keeping a record of every pathogen that has entered the body through memory B- cells. Defects in the immune system lead to autoimmune disorders, immunodeficiencies and allergy.
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