Why is do people with diabetes need to take insulin?
For Type I diabetics, they have a genetic disorder where their pancreas does not produce any insulin in the body. Type II diabetics may also produce little to no insulin, but they may also may be insulin resistant. This means they may not even need insulin injections, because the problem is their cells do not recognize the insulin already circulating in their bodies. In each situation, insulin absence or ineffectiveness does not allow the body to regulate blood glucose (sugar) levels. Normal body response to eating and then increased blood sugar levels is to release insulin, which breaks down sugar in the blood to be utilized or stored by the body. For people who do not produce insulin, they must inject insulin into their bodies in order to control their blood sugar.
What are four characteristics or functions of RNA that are unique or different from DNA?
1. RNA has one different nucliotide in its sequences. DNA uses thymine, while RNA uses uracil to pair with adenine. 2. RNA strands must be modified via splicing before becoming mRNA strands for protein synthesis. 3. Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a type of RNA that transfers spliced mRNA strands into protein strands. 4. RNA and DNA each have backbones made of sugar molecules. DNA's backbone is made of dextrose while RNA's is made of ribose.
Explain the pathway of blood flow through the heart.
De-Oxygenated blood from the body's veins collects in the Inferior and superior vena cava, which then enters the right atrium. As the heart relaxes, blood passes through the tricuspid valve and enters the right ventricle. When the heart contracts, blood is pushed out of the right ventricle, through the semilunar valves, and into the pulmonary arteries. This blood travels to the lungs to be oxygenated. Blood returns from the lungs via the pulmonary arteries and the newly oxygenated blood fills the right atrium. When the heart relaxes, it passes through the mitral valve into the left ventricle. Once the heart contracts, this blood is pushed through the semilunar valves, into the aorta where blood is pumped through all arteries of the body.