Tutor profile: Amira W.
Subject: Basic Math
How many seconds are in 440 minutes?
It's important to first list what we need to know in order to solve this. If we know that 60 seconds are in every minute, we simply multiply 60 by 440. Ignoring the zeros, we can multiple 44 * 6 to get 264. Then, we add the two zeros back on to get 26400. That's our answer!
According to Putnam, mental states – such as pain – are functional states. What does he mean by that?
Putnam argues that mental states are functional states, meaning they serve as a mediator between inputs and outputs. Though functionalism is also a form of physicalism, like the Identity Theory and Behaviorism, Putnam strongly criticized these two philosophies of mind. The Identity Theory, which claims that mental states are brain states, uses a compositional identity “is” of definition, arguing that there is no “mind” separate from the body and all mental states are merely brain states themselves. Putnam has a few issues with this argument. One of them is the idea that the Identity Theory requires the organism to have a specific physical-chemical structure in order to feel pain, and secondly, it assumes that any organisms without these same structure cannot feel pain. Putnam questions the validity of this theory by stating that there are organisms with different minds than our own that undeniably feel pain, such as octopi. Putnam doesn’t believe that nerves are required to feel pain/have mental states.
How would you describe the medical model of psychopathology?
The medical model suggests that psychopathologies originate biologically, such as through genetic disposition or neurotransmitter imbalance. This model assumes that psychiatric disorders stem from single and endogenous pathogens, viewing psychopathology as a static entity or something a person "has."
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