Explain Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and its relation to motivation.
Abraham Maslow demonstrated that not all needs are created equal. He proposed that there are five levels of need and that as one level is fulfilled, we are motivated by are need to fulfill the next level. The bottom most layer is basic physiological needs (including the need for food, water, warmth and rest), next come safety needs, then love and belonging need, followed by esteem needs, and finally self-actualization. For example, according to Maslow, a person will not have the motivation to think about their esteem and how accomplished they are if they are dying of thirst and starvation.
Choose 3 organelle and explain their function within a cell.
1. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) is smooth because it does not have ribosomes attached to it. It serves as a warehouse within the cell for enzymes that assist in the creation of lipids, enzymes that detoxify the cell, and ions including sodium which is necessary for creating energy in muscle cells. 2. The golgi apparatus could be called the post office of the cell. It sorts and packages proteins before sending them out to different parts of the cell (or outside of the cell) in sacks called vesicles. 3. The mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell and is the location of cellular respiration. It is where fuels including carbohydrates and fats are converted into ATP which is the primary energy carrier in all living organisms and is sometimes referred to as the "molecular unit of currency."
Explain the structure of a long bone such as the femur.
The outermost layer of the bone is called cortical bone and is dense and compact. The cortical layer of the bone surrounds the inner layer called spongy bone which is porous and is the location of the bone marrow. There are two types of bone marrow: red marrow is where red blood cells are made while yellow marrow stores energy as fat. The proximal and distal flared ends of a long bone are called epiphyses while the shaft is referred to as the diaphysis. An osteon is the basic structural unit of bone which is made up of several concentric layers. Within each osteon is a cavity called a central canal which contains blood vessels and nerves and within the layers of the osteon are spaces called lacunae which house mature bone cells (osteocytes) that maintain the cellular structure of the bone.