Tutor profile: Gitanjyali K.
Subject: Public Administration
What were the factors responsible for emergence of Bureaucracy?
Factors responsible for emergence of bureaucracy are- • system of free enterprise • industrialization • money economy • capitalism • democracy • growth of rationalism • emergence of complex admin problems • modern means of communications The demand for efficiency and effectiveness increased with industrialization. There was a need for systematic and scientific approach. And bureaucracy was an answer to this demand. The capitalism believed in competition and profits. This further increased the need for efficiency and effectiveness. The capitalist economy therefore undeniably played a major role in emergence of bureaucracy. Finally, democracy had similar ethos with that of bureaucracy. Democracy believed in equality of individuals; bureaucracy advocated to treat everyone equal (impersonal laws). The Bureaucracy Model provided the techniques, tools and methods for dealing with the prevalent socio-political challenges and thus became indispensable from the 20th century.
Subject: Political Science
Distinguish political theory from other inter-related terms.
There is a distinction between political theory and other inter-related terms such as political science, political thought, political ideology and political philosophy, which at times are used interchangeably. Political Theory and Political Science- The difference between political theory and political science is due to the general shift in the intellectual perceptions which is influenced by modern science. Political science provides us with the plausible generalizations and laws about politics and political behavior whereas political theory is about the political phenomenon, processes and institutions. It looks into the philosophical and ethical aspect and has a great essence of literary work. It is an inheritance of the entire humankind and not just of one culture, people or place. Political science and political theory have different boundaries and aims yet political theory is one of the core areas in political science. Political Theory and Political Thought- Political thought can be said as the thought of the whole community including politicians, social reformers, ordinary people that may include writings and speeches. These writings and speeches form the political treaties, government policies, scholarly articles, prose, etc which is time bound. Political thought includes the political theories which explains the political behavior and values. But, political theory is concerned with the relationship between concepts and circumstances unlike political thought. Political Theory and Political Ideology- Political ideology aims at giving the complete and universally applicable theory of human nature and society and a detailed program of attaining it. Political ideology can also be called as political philosophy but the vice versa is not true. Political ideology is a negotiation of political theory as the intension of political ideology is to justify a particular system of power in society but political theory describes political reality without passing any judgment. Political Theory and Political Philosophy- Political philosophy looks into the concepts such as justice and rights and focuses on the difference between ‘is’ and ‘ought’ of politics. Political philosophy which is a part of the normative political theory aims at establishing inter-relationships between concepts. Political philosophy is a complex activity and cannot be defined conclusively. Therefore, it can be said that, every political philosopher is a theorist, but every political theorist is not a political philosopher. Thus, it can be concluded that even though political theory and its other inter-related terms seems to have a lot in common and most of the times used synonymously, there are a lot of differences. Political theory views human being’s societal existence from a critical perspective unlike others. That is why political theory has now emerged as an academic discipline separating itself from political science, political thought, political ideology and political philosophy.
Subject: Gender Studies
Discuss Feminist Epistemology as a theory of knowledge.
Feminist Epistemology is the study of the ways in which gender influences the system of knowledge. Societies label the concept of knowledge as masculine. But feminist epistemologists claim that the gender categories have been used to understand the character and the status of theoretical knowledge. Two perspectives of Feminist Epistemology- 1. Feminist epistemology tries to explain the achievements of feminist criticism of science which is devoted to reveal sexism and androcentrism in theoretical inquiry. An adequate feminist epistemology must explain why a scientific theory or a practice is androcentric and how these features are expressed in theoretical inquiry and in application of theoretical knowledge. 2. The project of feminist epistemology aims to defend feminist scientific practices which incorporates a commitment to the liberation of women and the social and political equality of all. An adequate feminist epistemology must explain how research projects with such moral and political commitments can produce knowledge which will be adequate and fruitful to all. Features of Feminist Epistemology- - Feminist Epistemology as a branch of naturalized and social epistemology: Many theorist have seen feminist epistemology as a social ground on naturalized epistemology. Naturalized epistemology means knowledge production as an activity in which inquirers are subject to the same casual forces that affect their objects of study. This means naturalized epistemology enables us to investigate how knowledge changes as we change factors concerning the inquirers. Social epistemology is the branch of naturalized epistemology that investigates the influence of specifically social factors on knowledge production. Accordingly feminist epistemology can be considered as a branch of naturalized and social epistemology based on few points- 1. Gender structure focus 2. Gender symbolism 3. Androcentrism in biology, social sciences and cultural literary sciences 4. Sexism in theory 1. Gendered division of theoretical labor: Feminist critiques have carefully documented the history of women’s exclusion from theoretical inquiry. Socialization plays a huge role in making subjects like mathematics and natural sciences masculine subjects. This acts as a an informal barrier to women’s entry into such fields due to which even if women enter such fields after overcoming the obstacles, they are not treated as equals. The gendered division of theoretical labor gives greater credibility and importance to men than women in so far as producing knowledge is concerned. 2. Gender Symbolism: Gender symbolism, the hierarchy of knowledge has been the most important feature of feminist epistemology. Feminist epistemologist believe that there are hardly any conceptual dichotomy that has not been influenced by the model of masculine and feminist dichotomy. They also investigate how these conceptions are distorted by sexist imagery. Gender symbolism in context of theories is another feature of feminist epistemology. Feminist epistemologist emphasizes the role of gender in the construction of theoretical knowledge. 3. Androcentrism: A knowledge practice is androcentric if it reflects an orientation specifically or typically related to the male interest or male lives. Feminist in the natural and social science have advanced feminist epistemology fully and persuasively by exposing androcentrism in context of social, scientific and biological theories in several ways. 4. Sexism in Scientific Theories: When a theory asserts that women are inferior to men or when it judges according to the sexist or double standards, the context of the theory becomes sexist. When people employ such assumptions in applying theories, the application of the theory becomes sexist. Feminist epistemology aims at exposing such sexism and removing them. Thus, feminist epistemology is an important theory of knowledge which focuses on exposing the gendered and sexist imagery of knowledge and tries to make knowledge more equal.
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