What are some important tips for studying for exams?
1.) Don't procrastinate! Cramming will not give you the time that you need to focus on all topics, understand them thoroughly, and be able to retain the information to the best of your ability. 2.) Limit distractions. Go to a quiet and comfortable place where there aren't many things that can draw your attention away from your studies (i.e. a park, library, or quiet/emptier room in your home). Turn off your cell phone or put it in airplane mode, and turn off Wi-Fi on your computer if you can. At least turn-off notifications on each of your devices so that you are not distracted by texts or social networking sites/apps. 3.) Use your study materials to teach the information to other people, such as friends, family, or students studying for the same test! Teaching others is known to help people learn better and be able to recall the information in the future.
What is operant conditioning?
Operant conditioning is a type of learning that was coined by the American psychologist named B.F. Skinner. Operant conditioning is used to either increase or decreases the likelihood of a behavior being repeated by using positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, or negative punishment. Reinforcement is used to INCREASE the likelihood of a behavior being repeated, and punishment is used to DECREASE the likelihood of a behavior being repeated. Positive reinforcement/punishment is when something is ADDED in order to reinforce/punish, and negative reinforcement/punishment is when something is TAKEN AWAY in order to reinforce/punish. An easy way to remember all of this is: Positive = add Negative = take away Reinforcement = to keep a behavior Punishment = to change a behavior An example: Suzan's parents tell her that she must eat her vegetables at dinner. If she doesn't finish them, her parents will take away her video games. If she does finish them, she will be rewarded with a new video game that she has wanted for a long time. Suzan eats her vegetables, so her parents give her the new video game. This is an example of positive reinforcement. The video game was added to the situation in order to try to increase the likelihood of Suzan eating her vegetables in the future. If Suzan had not eaten her vegetables and her parents took away her video games, that would have been an example of negative punishment. The video games would be taken away in order to decrease the likelihood of Suzan not eating her vegetables.
What are a simile, metaphor, and personification?
These are all types of figurative language. A simile is a figure of speech in which two different things are compared using the words "like" or "as." Example: "It is as soft as a baby's bottom." OR "Life is like a box of chocolates." A metaphor is also a comparison of two different things, except it is a statement. Example: "You are a ray of sunshine!" Personification is when human characteristics, qualities, and/or behaviors are given to something that is nonhuman, such as an animal or an inanimate object. Example: "The moon smiled back at me."