How to conjugate a sentence in the future simple?
In french, two futures tenses are used: the simple future (le futur simple) and the near future (le futur proche). The "futur simple" is used to say something you intend to do in the future (a project), or to express a supposition for the future (imagination). For example: "Je ne pense pas que tu finiras à temps" ("I don't think you will finish in time") (supposition) or "Je viendrai dans quelques semaines." ("I will come in few weeks") (projet). The future is formed with the infinitive of the verb and the right ending (according to the person: je, tu, il, nous, vous, ils): ai, as, a ons, ez, ont. For exemple, for the verb "aimer" (love), it will be: j'aimerai, tu aimeras, il aimera, nous aimerons, vous aimerez, ils aimeront. But, BE CAREFUL! Some verbs are irregular and you have to learn them: être (be), avoir (have), pouvoir (can), venir (come),.....
What are the "signified" and the "signifier"?
These concepts were introduced by a swiss linguist: Saussure. For him, a linguistic sign is composed by two components: a sound-image and a concept. The "signifier" is the sound-image. It's the material aspect of the sign, the way that you perceive the sound of a word when you hear it. The "signified" is the concept. It's the conceptual aspect of the sign, the mental representation, the mental image you have in your head. For example, if a tell you the word "cat", the sound you hear is the signifier, and the image which is in your head when you hear the word (so probably an image of a cat) is the signified.
What's the difference between the present simple and the present continuous? How can I know when I have to use these tenses?
In english, there are two tenses to describe an action in the present: the present simple and the present continuous. The present simple is used to say things that are always true, or to talk about things that happened regularly (habits). For exemple, you say "I am always late for work" or "Laura lives in London" (don't forget the "s" for the third person). The present continuous is used to talk about actions in progress at the time of speaking or about things that are happening when you speak. For example, you say "I can't come right now, I'm studying". To use this tense, you have to remember this method: be+V-ing. It means that you have to conjugate the verb "be", followed by the verb with "ing": She IS cookING.