Tutor profile: Elyse W.
How do you format a cover page in APA 7th edition?
In APA 7th edition you are required to have a page number to the top right corner on all pages including the title page, but no longer are required to have a running head, as was included in the 6th edition. There are six lines you will include on the cover page which in order include your title, your full name, affiliation (in most cases the department and university you are attending, the course number and title, your instructors name and finally the date your assignment is due. Your title will be bolded and written in title case with a space before your name and the other lines will not be in bold. All lines, however, will be centered and double spaced. The date of your paper should be formatted as (month, day year) or June 21, 2021. The paper margins should be set at 1". For example, you will type the following with your own information: Title Student A. Sample Department, University Name Course Number: Course Title Instructor’s Name Assignment Due Date
How do you tell positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment and negative punishment apart from one another?
When thinking about the terms positive and negative within this context, it is not positive means good and negative means bad, but rather positive means something has been added and negative means that something has been removed. Reinforcement is associated with a higher likelihood of a behavior occurring again, whereas punishment is associated with a lower likelihood of a behavior reoccurring. For example, positive reinforcement suggests something has been added which leads to an increase of a given behavior. If a mother observes a child finishing their veggies and consequently provides the child with cookies as a reward, the child may be more likely to eat their vegetables in the future. In the same example, positive punishment would be if something was added which led to a reduction in a given behavior. If following the observation of a child finishing their vegetables the mother gave the child more vegetables, this could be positive punishment as the child associates finishing their veggies with needing to eat more and therefore avoids finishing the vegetables in future meals. Negative reinforcement is when something is removed leading to an increase in behavior. If a student is asked to participate in a none preferred activity such as a worksheet and engages in disruptive behavior which leads them to being told to leave the room the behavior may be negatively reinforced. If in the future the student engages in this behavior more it is due to the removal of demand associated with the worksheet. Similarly, negative punishment would be if something is removed leading to a degrease in behavior. For example, if a child shoves a peer during one of his preferred recess activities and is removed from that activity due to this behavior, it is likely in the future this behavior will be reduced as the child did not want the removal of the activity to occur. So to recap, positive simply means something in the environment was added, negative simply means something was removed and reinforcement means that the associated behavior is more likely to reoccur and punishment means the associated behavior is less likely to reoccur.
Subject: Cognitive Science
How is humanistic psychology different from other subfields of psychology and what drove early humanistic theorists to study psychology within this subfield rather than those of other subfields?
Humanistic psychology emerged in response to the previously existing divisions of psychology, psychoanalysis and behaviorism, as these divisions neglected to investigate cognitive elements of human behavior as a whole or experience-based concept. Humanistic psychology focuses on concepts such as mindfulness, self-awareness, and self-actualization and how these concepts may assist in developing one’s cognitive or psychological growth or maximum potential within a healthy and creative mind, unlike psychoanalysis and behaviorism which more closely focuses on atypical or undesired behaviors and associated abnormalities. For this reason, early humanistic theorist including Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers focused their research on humanistic psychology as their theories are focused on the development of self-actualization in order to gain one’s full cognitive potential. This has led to Maslow’s hierarch of needs and Rogers’ patient centered therapy as well as many other theories to emerge focusing on individual, experience-based growth.