Tutor profile: Jessica M.
Subject: Natural Sciences
Why does my stomach flop when I see that special someone?
There are a lot of reasons this could be happening! One channel can be through histamine release. Histamine is released when you experience anxiety, and can trigger H1 receptors that tell your stomach it doesn't feel too hot. They can also cause bronchoconstriction that closes your airway slightly - making you feel all choked up when they catch your eye!
How many hours a day should I spend studying for the DAT?
While this question seems simple, a lot of thought goes into answering it. This is a question that you need more questions to answer! 1) What kind of studying do I need to do? 2) How good am I at that kind of studying? 3) How well will I retain things over a long period of time? For example: For those who struggle with Chemistry: 1) you may need to spend more time in wrote memorization. There are a lot of formulas and reactions to remember! 2) If you're great at wrote memorization - no sweat! An hour a day for a few months could get you there! For those who struggle with the PAT: 1) You need practice, practice, practice. There's no way around it - you just have to put in the work! 2) While you need practice, puzzles can be exhausting after a while - maybe 15-20 minutes a day for 6 months. For those who struggle with reading comprehension: 1) You're going to need to log time reading professional-level research articles. But no need to pick a subject you don't like! Look around on your school's research databases, or check google scholar to find an article on your niche of STEM. 2) This one can take a lot longer to develop. If you see that the DAT is in your future, get started ASAP! Pick out an article a week and make sure you understand it in depth - maybe get a friend and start a study club! 3) For all subjects, it's important to consider how well you will retain the information long-term. Some skills like PAT or Reading Comprehension will build up over time - but you might lose all of the formulas you memorized if you study them a year out!
Let's say that my mother passed on a trait for blue eyes and my father passed on a trait for brown eyes. I have blue eyes. 1) Assuming simple dominant-recessive inheritance, which gene is dominant? 2) Assuming Brown eyes are dominant, what's one way this could be possible? 3) Assuming this isn't simple dominant-recessive inheritance, list two plausible models to explain my eye color.
There are several concepts in genetics for which this could be true! Let's have a little fun with genetics, shall we? 1) Dominant would be blue, and recessive would be brown. 2) Assuming that blue is recessive and brown is dominant, one possible explanation could be Epistasis! The concept of epistasis explains that genes at one locus affect the expression of genes at another locus. The traditional example of epistasis would be complete inactivation of a gene at a separate locus, and this concept could apply here! It could indicate that "blue" is the default eye color when a gene is completely inactivated. 3.1) Genome imprinting. This higher-level concept sounds scarier than it actually is. The basic concept is: Male and Female parents pass on the same type of allele in a different way. In this example, lets say that the male allele for eye color are always inherited "off". That is to say, every eye color allele passed on by a male will be inactivated by methylation, and therefore not active. Likewise, the alleles passed on by a female parent will always be inherited "on", because they are not inactivated by methylation. - Bonus question for understanding: If I'm female, and pass on a brown allele to my progeny, what color will their eyes by? - Answer: Brown! Because my female genes are always "on" and any male opposing alleles will be "off" - regardless of which allele! 3.2) Polygenic inheritance. This concept describes traits that are inherited on a spectrum as a collection of many alleles at different loci. In this example, we could pretend that each person has 20 alleles for eye color - maybe I only got one or two "brown" alleles, so my eyes look more blue than brown! This exercise shows how many options there are for genetic inheritance, and how we can think creatively while generating hypotheses! These are only a few answers - not the only ones.
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