Tutor profile: Jagriti J.
Subject: SAT II Biology E/M
What is Speciation?
Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become new species.It is the inability of two populations to interbreed after being separated by a barrier for a long period of time.
What is protein denaturation? Is there any change in the primary structure when a protein is denatured?
Denaturation is the modification of structure that makes the protein biologically inactive. Protein denaturation can be caused by temperature variation, pH change. After denaturation the primary protein structure is not affected as the amino acid sequence remains the same even after changes in pH or Temperature. However the secondary and tertiary structure is disrupted that ultimately leads to loss of Biological Activiy.
What are antibodies?
An antibody is a Y shaped protein that is used to identify and neutralise a foreign particle such as a Virus or a bacteria. The Antibody binds with a unique molecule of the disease causing microorganism called an Antigen. It is also known as Immunoglobulins and are of various types : called IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD and IgE. Each plays slightly different roles in the immune system. 1. IgG and IgM are the antibodies that circulate in the bloodstream. 2. IgA is present in mother's milk, 3. IgE is the antibody that triggers allergic responses, such as to pollen or dust. 4. IgD helps activate the cells that make antibodies.