How do you reach your page limit without adding in fluff?
To extend a paper without adding fluff there are two things that you can do: research and think of counter examples. Research works no matter what kind of paper you are writing. One of the major reasons students have trouble writing 5-7 pages on a topic is lack of knowledge about the topic itself. Once you know enough about a topic it can become difficult to write papers that are even 15-20 pages without going over the page limit. But at this point you are not an expert on the subject, so you need to learn more about it in order to write more. This can be as simple as going on to Wikipedia and raiding its reference section or as complicated as a database search. With additional knowledge at your disposable you will find that you can write much more than you previously could. If the paper you are writing has persuasive elements, then you have an additional option at your disposal. You can come up with objections to your position and respond to them. This gives you more to write about that is significant to the paper. If you can't think of objections, ask a friend to try to think up some. So long as there is an objection and you have a response, this method can help you reach your page limit.
What is the best method learning the material in a textbook?
While there are different types of learners a method that works for everyone is note taking and review. Textbooks are generally well structured into chapters, sections, and subsections. Notes should reflect this structure, divided into each section. Then, under the appropriate heading, the main idea of each paragraph should be written down, with any additional detail that facilitates understanding. With a complete set of notes written you should review them regularly; first daily and then weekly. Doing this should result in both memorization and understanding of the material.
What is the significance of Plato's Allegory of the Cave?
Plato's allegory is significant for what it claims about the nature of reality. He is claiming that physical reality is like being in the cave; we only see the shadows of real things. The only truly real things are the ideal Forms, which we do not have access to ordinarily. Instead, we have indirect access to them through things in physical reality that participate in them. For example, there is the Form of the Good, but we only know it indirectly through seeing things that are good. It is the philosopher only, who can break the chains and journey to the realm of the forms, who can truly the know the Forms and, thus, true reality.