Tutor profile: Nina W.
Discuss the relationship between collegiate/professional athletes and eating disorders. In addition, describe common treatment plans that may be implemented for individuals experiencing these disorders.
Research around the topic of eating disorders has shown that collegiate and international elite athletes experience these disorders at a higher rate than the general population. Three of the most commonly diagnosed eating disorders among these populations include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified. Often, eating disorders may go undetected for long periods of time because athletes become skillful at hiding them and the physical effects are not always apparent. However, there are a number of warning signs to be aware of when working with athletes that can help us recognize the need for action. Typically, eating disorders are more common among female athletes. The prevalence rates across the three categories previously mentioned suggest that women are at a greater risk for developing an eating disorder than their male counterparts. That being said, it is important not to dismiss the possibility of male athletes experiencing an eating disorder, as they are still at risk. Sports that have typically seen higher rates of eating disorders include gymnastics, cross-country/track & field, swimming/diving and wrestling. We can infer from these findings that prevalence rates are higher in sports where weight, appearance, and body size/shape are emphasized. For example, making weight is an important component of wrestling and many wrestlers go to extreme measures in order to stay within their particular weight classes. Behaviors associated with making weight may include prolonged periods without eating, avoidance of drinking water, withdrawal from everyday activities as a result of exhaustion, and binge eating/purging. Other common warning signs/symptoms for athletes with an eating disorder include dizziness/fainting, fatigue, compulsive behavior, hyperactivity/impulsivity, social isolation, significant weight loss/thinness, anxiety, vomiting, yellowing of teeth and irregular menstruation. As eating disorders fall within commonly diagnosed psychopathy among athletes, there are a number of recommendations for diagnosis and treatment. To begin, practitioners must be aware of their own attitudes and reactions to athlete eating and exercise behaviors, so not to mislabel or inflict their own biases into diagnosis. Further, it is essential for practitioners to examine outside influences that may be impacting an athlete and influencing their maladaptive eating behaviors. It is also essential for practitioners to create a safe environment where athletes can explore these challenges/clinical issues without judgement in order to seek the necessary and appropriate help or course of treatment. It is also essential to remember that certain pathologies such as eating disorders, may require outside referrals (e.g. treatment centers, support groups) to better support an athlete. Common types of psychotherapy used with athletes experiencing disordered eating include: acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), cognitive remediation therapy (CRT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), evidence-based treatment, family-based treatment, and interpersonal psychotherapy. In addition to psychotherapy or counseling treatment, eating disorders can be treated using intensive outpatient care, hospitalization, residential treatment, and inpatient care. In order to better protect athletes, it is essential for athletic programs to educate all personnel (e.g. coaches, athletes, training staff) about the prevalence, signs/symptoms, preventative actions, and treatment options for eating disorders.
Subject: Study Skills
What are some of the common barriers experienced by students that inhibit them from completing academic work in a timely and efficient manner? (Please list/describe a minimum of three items)
1. Smartphones, Streaming Services & Gaming- Given the evident allure of modern technology, students often have their attention divided while trying to complete academic work. This may contribute to lesser quality of work and/or timely completion of work. 2. Extracurricular Activities- At all academic levels, the average student participates in one or more extracurricular activities (e.g. clubs/organizations, athletic teams, volunteering). With a demanding academic load and additional before/after school activities, students may have difficulty managing their time as it relates to studying, completing and turning in assignments. 3. Access to Resources- This barrier includes access to a quiet study space with little to no distractions, access to internet services to complete assignments, and knowledge about resources that are available such as peer tutors and academic counselors.
Name and describe three theoretical approaches commonly used in psychotherapy.
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is built from the philosophy that individuals contribute to their own psychological issues by perpetuating rigid and extreme beliefs about events and situations (Corey, 2013). Another aspect of this approach is that clients can only become psychologically healthy if they learn to refrain from blaming themselves and others, and instead accept themselves and their imperfections. Through the process of cognitive restructuring, the counselor assists the client in replacing ineffective patterns of thought with rational cognitions, further allowing the client to stop absolutistic thinking. Person Centered Therapy (PCT) is built upon the importance of unconditional positive regard of the client, empathic understanding, and genuineness. Sessions in which the counselor draws from this approach are conducted in a climate of safety that allows the client to develop trust in themselves and a willingness to continue growing. Through PCT, clients are able to become less defensive, understand and accept others, and diminish their concerns about the expectations of others (Corey, 2013). Adlerian Approach: Some of the central components of Adlerian therapy are understanding the client’s subjective reality, as well as the meanings that they attach to their experiences, and the utilization of a holistic therapeutic approach (Corey, 2013). Additionally, Adler believed that events in one’s environment influence personality and that focusing on the client’s interpretation of their environment, or of a given event, is helpful in understanding their experience. Through a collaborative partnership, the client and counselor work toward agreed-upon goals in effort to build client self-confidence.
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